[Answerkey] CSAT 2013 GS: Geography: Physical, Indian, World Geography Questions solved with explanation, reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)

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  1. Prologue
  2. Geography: Internal breakup
    1. World Geography
    2. Atlas Mountain Ranges
    3. Nomadic herders
  3. Indian geography (6Qs)
    1. Narmada
    2. Mica, Petrol and Gas
    3. Coal, Indian
    4. Agro related (2Q)
      1. Laterite Soil
      2. Crop seasons
    5. Tribals of India
  4. PHYSICAL Geography (5Qs)
    1. Knight and Day
    2. Fresh Water
    3. Thunderstorm
    4. Temperature: Coastal vs Interior
    5. Earth dynamic changes?

Prologue

  • 14 out of 100 MCQs in CSAT 2013 were from Geography. Last year it was 11.
  • Majority of the question can be solved directly from standard reference books/sources for Geography viz.
    • NCERT
    • NIOS
    • General studies Manual
    • Indian Geography by Majid Hussein
  • Within Indian geography, agro related Qs. receive attention, just like last year.
  • Within Physical geography, ocean, temperature related Qs, just like last year.
  • World Geography continues to receive low-priority (Although world geography should not be completely ignored in preparation because Mains 2013 does contain topics from World Geography.)
  • Nothing from current affairs.

Geography: Internal breakup

Chart CSAT 2013 Geography

World 2
Indian* 6
Physical 6
Total 14

*Qs related to National parks, wildlife etc. classified under EnB (environment and biodiversity).

World Geography (2Qs)

Atlas Mountain Ranges

1.  Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?

  1. Abyssinian Plateau : Arabia
  2. Atlas Mountains : North-Western Africa
  3. Guiana Highlands : South-Western Africa
  4. Okavango Basin : Patagonia

In the school atlas, check the physical map of Africa. You’ll see Atlas mountain range in the Top-left corner (=north Western) => Answer B is correct.

Regarding other choices:

  1. Abyssinian plateau is in Ethiopia (in Africa)
  2. Guiana Highland= In South America
  3. Okavango basin/swamp= In Southern part of in Africa.

Hence final answer (B) Atlas Mountains : North-Western Africa.

Nomadic herders

2. “Climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty and the people used to be nomadic herders.” The above statement best describes which of the following regions?

  1. African Savannah
  2. Central Asian Steppe
  3. North American Prairie
  4. Siberian Tundra

let’s consider the options

African Savannah

Doesn’t fit the description of “Climate is extreme, rainfall is scanty”

Siberian Tundra?

  • as per NIOS Geography material, chapter.16 Life In The High Latitudes
  • Extreme climate= yes
  • Low precipitation =yes.
  • Nomadic life = yes
  • but they’re not nomadic “herders”. Their primary occupation is hunting and fishing.

Central Asian Steppe

  • as per NIOS Geography material, chapter.15 Life In The Mid Latitudes
  • extreme climate= yes
  • low precipitation =yes.
  • Nomadic life= yes. The mid-latitude (Central Asian) grassland were once home to pastoral nomads like Kirgiz, Kazakh and Kalmuks.

North American Prairie?

  • as per NIOS Geography material, chapter.15 Life In The Mid Latitudes
  • extreme climate= yes
  • low precipitation =yes.
  • nomadic life? = No. The farmers here use mechanized equipment and do wheat cultivation on large scale.

Hence answer B) Central Asian Steppe

Indian geography (6Qs)

Physical Geography of India (Narmada) 1
Minerals and Energy related 2
Agro related 2
Human Geography (Tribals) 1
Total 6

Narmada

Q. The Narmada river flows to the west, while most other large peninsular rivers flow to the east. Why?

  1. It occupies a linear rift valley.
  2. It flows between the Vindhyas and the Satpuras.
  3. The land slopes to the west from Central India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. None
  • Refer to NCERT 11th standard, Geography, 3rd chapter, page number 27. It says Narmada and Tapi flow through rift valleys caused due to the upheaval of Himalayas.
  • Also it is given in the last line of the page as it flows through the rift valley with the Satpura in south and Vindhyas in the north. But there is no option for 1 & 2. We can consider maybe that flowing between the ranges may not cause the river to flow west and it is only a fact.
  • Refer to NCERT Class 9 Contemporary India textbook, chapter 2, page number 10. It gives the contours of the Indian physical systems. We can see that Narmada is flowing through the area where the land is not sloping towards the west from central India, but it is flowing west because of the rift valleys only.

Map Narmada elevation
Hence answer (A) Only 1

Mica, Petrol and Gas

1. Consider the following statements:

  1. Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds.
  2. Mica occurs in abundance in Kodarma.
  3. Dharwars are famous for petroleum.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3
  4. None

Refer to level 2 Q6 in Pearson’s General Studies Manual (2011), all three statements are directly lifted.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=WuBFs6yFRwcC&pg=RA2-PA35&lpg=RA2-PA35
And as per Thorpe (author of the Manual) only Mica-Kordema Statement is correct.
http://books.google.co.in/books?id=WuBFs6yFRwcC&pg=RA2-PA55&lpg=RA2-PA35&ots=r3dPt0txsL

Statement T/F? Why?
  1. Natural gas occurs in the Gondwana beds.
False
  • Gondwana beds = coal deposits (and not natural gas.) (Majid)
  1. Mica occurs in abundance in Kodarma.
True
  • TMH General Studies manual, Ch. Indian and World Geography, page 127
  • Kodarma mines in Jharkhand are one of the important mica producing areas
  • Another reference is Indian Geogrpahy, Majid Hussain Page 7.18 The main center of mica production in Jharkhand and Bihar are Kodarma, Dhorhakola.
  1. Dharwars are famous for petroleum.
False
  • Dharwar = district in Karnataka. Not related with petroleum.

Hence answer: (B) only 2.

Coal, Indian

Which of the following is / are the characteristic/ characteristics of Indian coal?

  1. High ash content
  2. Low sulphur content
  3. Low ash fusion temperature

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Standard reference books (NCERT, NIOS, TMH, Majid) are silent about low ash fusion temperature of Indian coal, hence time to dig internet.

As per an article published in Frontline (2008),

most significant characteristic of Indian coal is its high ash content 1st statement is correct
However, Indian coal’s sulphur content is low, about 0.5 per cent. 2nd statement is correct
high ash fusion temperature of about 1,500 C. 3rd statement is false

Final answer A: only 1 and 2 correct.

Agro related (2Q)

Laterite Soil

1. Which of the following statements regarding laterite soils of India are correct?

  1. They are generally red in colour.
  2. They are rich in nitrogen and potash.
  3. They are well-developed in Rajasthan and UP.
  4. Tapioca and cashew nuts grow well on these soils.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1 and 4
  4. 2 and 3 only

Indian Geography, Majid Hussain Chapter: Page 6.8

Laterite soils are rich in iron and aluminum but poor in nitrogen, potash, potassium, lime and organic matter. Hence Statement #2 is wrong.  Eliminate all answer choices containing statement #2.

  1. 1, 2 and 3
  2. 2, 3 and 4
  3. 1 and 4
  4. 2 and 3 only

Thus we are left with final answer C: only 1 and 4.

Another approach is via NIOS Geography Chapter 19, Page 401

Laterite soil commonly found in areas of high altitude and heavy rainfall in Karnataka, TN, MP, Bihar, Orissa, Assam and Meghalaya. Hence Rajasthan doesn’t fit the bill. So, Eliminate choice involving Statement#3 and you’re still left with answer C.

Crop seasons

2. Consider the following crops

  1. Cotton
  2. Groundnut
  3. Rice
  4. Wheat

Which of these are Kharif crops?

  1. 1 and 4
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 2, 3 and 4

Refer NCERT Class 12 Geography (India People and Economy), Chapter 5, Page no – 44

Kharif Rice, cotton, jute, juwar, bajra and tur
Rabi Wheat, gram, mustard

Hence answer must contain both Cotton (#1) and Rice (#3). And answer must not contain Wheat(#4).

Now start eliminating options

  1. 1 and 4 (because 3 is missing)
  2. 2 and 3 only (because 1 is missing)
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. 2, 3 and 4 (because contains 4)

Thus we are left with final answer C: 1, 2 and 3.

Tribals of India

Consider the following pairs :

  1. Limboo (Limbu) : Sikkim
  2. Karbi : Himachal Pradesh
  3. Dongaria : Odisha
  4. Bonda : Tamil Nadu

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

As per the article that appeared in The Hindu in Feb 2012,

Bonda are the most primitive tribal groups in Odisha. According to Census 2011, the Bonda tribe has a population of less than 12,000. Therefore, statement #4 is wrong, because it links Bonda with Tamilnadu. Eliminate answer choices involving #4

  1. 1 and 3 only
  2. 2 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Thus, final answer (A): 1 and 3 only.

PHYSICAL Geography (5Qs)

Knight and Day

Variations in the length of daytime and night time from season to season are due to

  1. the earth’s rotation on its axis
  2. the earth’s revolution round the sun in an elliptical manner
  3. latitudinal position of the place
  4. revolution of the earth on a tilted axis

As per TMH General studies manual, Chapter Indian and World Geography, page 9

had the axis of earth been perfectly perpendicular to the plane of ecliptic, the sunrays would have been verticle over the equator all the year round and amount of energy received at any place would have remained constant throughout the year; hence no change of seasons. Also in that situation, the days and nights all over the earth would have been exactly equal throughout the year as it happens at the time of equinoxes.

Hence answer (D)

Fresh Water

On the planet earth, most of the freshwater exists as ice caps and glaciers. Out of the remaining freshwater, the largest proportion

  1. is found in atmosphere as moisture and clouds
  2. is found in freshwater lakes and rivers
  3. exists as groundwater
  4. exists as soil moisture

Refer to NCERT Class 11 Physical Geography, Ch.13, page 113

Reservoir Percentage of the Total
  1. Oceans
97.25
  1. Ice Caps and Glaciers
2.05
  1. Groundwater
0.68
  1. Lakes
0.01
  1. Soil Moisture
0.005
  1. Atmosphere
0.001
  1. Streams and Rivers
0.0001
  1. Biosphere
0.00004

Hence answer is (C) exists as groundwater.

Thunderstorm

During a thunderstorm, the thunder in the skies is produced by the

  1. meeting of cumulonimbus clouds in the sky
  2. lightning that separates the nimbus clouds
  3. violent upward movement of air and water particles

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. None of the above produces the thunder

The question is about cause of thunder during a thunderstorm (and not the cause of thunderstorm itself).

As per Britannica

  • Thunder is the sound caused by a lightning discharge.
  • Lightning heats the air in its path and causes a large over-pressure of the air within its channel.
  • The channel expands supersonically into the surrounding air as a shock wave and creates an acoustic signal that is heard as thunder.

So is the answer D=none of above.

by the way if we take #2 is correct (lightening that separates numbus clouds), there is no option saying “only 2”.=> hence D

Temperature: Coastal vs Interior

The annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high as compared to coastal areas. What is / are the reason / reasons?

  1. Thermal difference between land and water.
  2. Variation in altitude between continents and oceans.
  3. Presence of strong winds in the interior
  4. Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts.
  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Debatable. first let’s check the statements that can be validated or rejected with surety:

Statement #1= correct

As per NIOS Geography, Ch5, Page 99

Continentality or distance from sea

  • water is bad conductor of heat. Due to this moderating effect of the sea, places near coast have low range of temperature and high humidity.
  • The places in the interior of continent do not experience moderating effects of sea. These places have extreme temperature. => Statement #1 is correct.
  • This eliminates answer choice C, because it doesn’t contain #1.

Statement #4= wrong

  • Statement 4 claims that Heavy rains in the interior as compared to coasts (are responsible for why annual range of temperature in the interior of the continents is high)
  • But the interiors in Central Asia, receive very poor rainfall due to distance from sea. Annual precipitation is usually low in the interior areas. Hence #4 cannot be generalized.
  • This eliminates choice D, because it contains #4. Thus we are left with two choices A and B.
  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only

So final answer boils down to whether statement #2 is right or wrong?

Relook at the question: it asks about why “annual range of temperature” is high in interior areas.

ok then, first What is annual range of temperature (ART)?

Ans. It is the difference between mean temperature of the warmest and the coldest months.

  • We know that Shimla and Jalandhar are located @same latitude yet Shimla is cooler than Jalandhar because of difference in altitude. As we move up in the mountains, temperature goes down. but that is to justify difference in ART between two land-places.
  • otherwise, if we look @the map showing ART in Costal vs Interior areas (see the map)

Map India_average_annual_temperature

  • Observe that Western Ghats and Himalayas have lower ART compared to coastal areas in TN and Andhra, Goa and Kerala coast.
  • Therefore, Variation in altitude between continents and oceans= not the valid explanation for given question.

Hence #2 is wrong, answer= (A) only 1. (or debatable (B))
Update Jun-26-2014: UPSC uploaded official answerkey. Correct answer is: A.

Earth dynamic changes?

Consider the following:

  1. Electromagnetic radiation
  2. Geothermal energy
  3. Gravitational force
  4. Plate movements
  5. Rotation of the earth
  6. Revolution of the earth

Which of the above are responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth?

  1. 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  2. 1, 3, 5 and 6 only
  3. 2, 4, 5 and 6 only
  4. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

lolz, Debatable on what exactly is meant by “dynamic” changes on earth surface and how far we drag the logic about factors responsible such dynamic change.

Viewpoint #1: A is correct

  • if you consider the tides that cause coastal erosion =dynamic change on earth’s surface. Then tides occur due to gravitational pull of the Moon=> #3 is right.
  • earthquake =brings dynamic change on earth surface=>#4 plate movements is right.
  • volcanos= brings dynamic change on earth surface=>#2 geothermal energy movements is right.
  • Electromagnetic radiation, rotation, revolution cause seasonal changes
  • Rotation =Responsible for day and night- cannot bring ‘dynamic changes’ to earth’s surface. So #5 is wrong (or implausible).
  • Answer should contain 2,3,4 but not 5. only one such option=A: 1, 2, 3 and 4 only

Viewpoint #2: D is correct

  • revolution of earth = responsible for seasons. And Heavy monsoon => landslides and soil erosion= dynamic change to surface. hence #6 must be in the answer. Therefore viewpoint #1 is wrong when it says #5 is wrong.
  • final answer should be (D)= all six

Viewpoint #3: C is correct

  • Electromagnetic radiation from Sun=> causes rainfall and snow melting=soil erosion=dynamic change to earth’s surface but it is a farfetched argument in terms of cause and effect because you’ve to factor in greenhouse gases, deforestation etc. Same goes for gravitational force, hence 1 and 3 are false, final answer (C) 2, 4, 5 and 6 only.

anyways, final arbitrator is official answerkey of UPSC.
Update Jun-26-2014: UPSC uploaded official answerkey. Correct answer is: D all of them responsible.
Answerkeys for remaining topics, coming soon + thanks Mr. Manu Jha (मनु झा) and Mr.Shiva Ram for providing help.

Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

143 Comments on “[Answerkey] CSAT 2013 GS: Geography: Physical, Indian, World Geography Questions solved with explanation, reference, all four sets (A,B,C,D)”

  1. Dear Sir,

    there is one more doubt about lightning being caused by meeeting of cumulonimbus cloud. Please clarify

    Lightning

    Lightning occurs in cumulonimbus cloud as intra cloud, cloud to ground and inter cloud lightning:

    Intracloud Lightning

    Intracloud lightning is the most common type of lightning which occurs completely inside one cumulonimbus cloud, jumping between different charged regions within the cloud. Intracloud lightning is commonly known as sheet lightning because it lights up the cloud and the surrounding sky with an apparent sheet of light. One special type of intracloud lightning is commonly called an anvil crawler. Discharges of electricity in anvil crawlers travel up the sides of the cumulonimbus cloud branching out at the anvil top.

    Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    Cloud-to-ground lightning is a great lightning discharge between a cumulonimbus cloud and the ground initiated by the downward-moving leader stroke. This is the second most common type of lightning. One special type of cloud-to-ground lightning is anvil lightning, a form of positive lightning, since it emanates from the anvil top of a cumulonimbus cloud where the ice crystals are positively charged, and is a form of positive lightning. In anvil lightning, the leader stroke issues forth in a nearly horizontal direction till it veers toward the ground. These usually occur miles ahead of the main storm and will strike without warning on a sunny day. They are signs of an approaching storm.

    Cloud-to-Cloud Lightning

    Cloud-to-cloud lightning is a somewhat rare type of discharge lightning between two or more completely separate cumulonimbus clouds.

    http://www.crystalinks.com/lightning.html

    1. ideally the answer should have been only 2 i.e lightening that seperates the cloud but it is not given.
      “When a lightning bolt travels from the cloud to the ground it actually opens up a little hole in the air, called a channel. Once then light is gone the air collapses back in and creates a sound wave that we hear as thunder”

      1. the thunder is caused by explosive sudden expansion of air and hence shock waves due to sudden rise in temperature in the path of the discharge in the lightening . It is like a bomb exploding. (teperature gets from normal to 10000-30000 degree C in fraction of seconds).however it does not happen at the scale of separation of clouds!

  2. Hi Mrunal ,
    I am also the one benefitting from your blog.I browsed the so called best ias coaching centres(Chennai) websites.All are busy filling their admissions for GS & next prelims & showing the pages that so & so many questions from their material only …..bla bla .. BUT NObody Sincerely prepared one excellent key like you . Just for namesake they have given a key without any analysis . But you have done this in a great manner .THANK YOU VERY MUCH for clarifying our doubts with your thorough analysis .

  3. I have a query…
    Plz resolve the issue..
    Actually for paper 2 of upsc prelims 2013 i checked answer key of career launcher.. From there answer key i m getting 150…. But when i am filling their e-omr for paper 2 they are showing only 145.. So anybody plz tell me that what is the reason behind this…
    thanx for advance
    plz clear my query friends..

    1. May be for decision making questions you marked second best answer so they are not giving full marks for that?

      1. thanks abhishek bhai… 1 thing more… if answer is a or c then it means that there will be same or different marks for option a and option c?????

        1. bhai I don’t know what UPSC adopts but in test series they usually say 2.5 for first choice and 1.5 for second. Sometimes if the options are very close they say 2 for second choice.

        2. You are comparing the Test Series mechanism to UPSC.
          This is a first.
          UPSC awards same marks that is 2.5 to both the answers. There is no partial marking. If you let go your tension a bit and then think, both the right answers cater to different traits of personalities, one that will take strict and straight action and one that is more diplomatic yet effective in the end result.
          Both themes are awarded equally.

    1. @ Shobhit & Meghna, MEET ME!!!!

      He he.
      Don’t worry people, every year candidates come claiming 280-320 straight out of the exam hall after Pre, (I’m not challenging the authenticity of anyone’s claimed score) but I’ve seen quite a few fall flat; pun intended.

      Besides that, the cut-off is determined by the JANTA Score & not the toppers score(this applies only in case of PT, never try & rely on this to let yourself relax in Mains preparation, otherwise one stands a sure chance to lose valuable rank, if not the result)

      What I’m trying to say is that don’t count yourself out until the result is out. Im not saying that you are sure to qualify, but the probabilty of you not qualifying, is equally as uncertain as the probability of qualifying.

      Just keep your nerves & prepare well for mains.

  4. In the KNIGHT & Day question, if it is observed from another point, that variations in length of the day is different at various places on earth from equator to poles, with poles having 6months day in one season & 6 months night in the other(w.r.t North & South Hemis) while places towards equator tend to have increasingly equal duration of days & nights, then from this perspective of taking the question “c” option also appears correct, in addition to “d” off course.

    OK Yes, I’m also trying to appease myself, but I do have a point I believe.

  5. man aht abt natural gas discoveries in krsiahna godavari basin and rajasthan.
    these are gondwana lands and they have natural gas. why do u think this question was asked.

  6. 71% of indian coals contain high ash and high sulphur content , throughout the world coal contain high sulphur Australia is an exception,if amount of sulphur is more than 0.5% , it is high sulphur.

  7. Tundra is correct answer for nomadic herds , consult 12th ncert geography , they have herds of reindeer , steppe not so extreme ,if compare with tundra so,siberian tundra is correct answer.

  8. “thunderstorms is a well grown cumulonimbus cloud producing thunder and lightening….”- source NCERT FUNDAMENTAL OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY CLASS 11 PAGE NO.96……SO OPTION A IS CORRECT.

  9. Central asian steppe’s climate is so delicate that little variations can slide the balance to either sides ,arctic thundra on the other hand is consistent with its extreme whether whereas central asian steppe is not ,it has seasons and people do have pleasant days unlike the thundra

  10. Hi mrunal,

    About fresh water question please check in the “The Hindu NEWS Paper(Hard copy)- March 31, 2013 opinion>>open page”, based on news answer “B” is right and same page they asked Tattoo question also.

    Just for discussion*******

    Thank You for wonderful support

  11. Hi Sir,

    Thanks for this site!I gave my first attempt this time and only god knows whether i will qualify or not.But whether i will clear this time or not this questions rarely affects me to further enhance my knowledge and prepare for mains.Just want your guidance on following:

    1)PAPER-V: General Studies- IV: Ethics, Integrity,?? and Aptitude-250 Marks
    2)PAPER-IV: General Studies-III: Technology??

    For the rest of the papers i am refering ignou site as per your previous post.Please let us know if we other such sources or sites where we can get materials for mains.

  12. Hi Mrunal, Thanks for the key with detailed explanation.
    Fot the Question: Variations in the length of daytime and night time from season to season are due to?

    Option 4:”revolution of the earth on a tilted axis” is logically a wrong statement.
    earth doesn’t revolve on tilted axis at all. Its axis of rotation is tilted.
    So mostly the correct answer is C(latitudinal position of the place)

    1. hi, it is earth on a tilted axis not revolution on a tilted axis :so it is revolution of earth (which is) on a tilted axis . (well english can be tricky without punctuation !)

  13. @Mrunal – Thanks for the detailed explanation.. but i think u missed a Q.. there was one in which we were asked to find the correct match among the national parks and the rivers flowing through them.. it had an option “corbett national park – manas”.. mayb its a diff set.. dn knw.. i dint giv d xam this time.. jus saw it in a q paper..

  14. sir i am getting score around 219+(belongs to open category)??
    will i be in safe side or not..?
    what will be the cut off??

    1. not even a upsc official can predict the cutoff Mr vinod.
      so better start preparing further and leave the rest to god.peace

  15. Dear Mrunal,I thanx u so much that I dont get words to show u how elated I am with these helps that u r providing…….We wud be indebted to u if u plz give the recommended books for Civil Services-Mains and strategy thereof at the earliest……..

    Thanx Again

  16. thunderstorm :-
    http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/electromag/java/lightning/
    http://cosmiac.ece.unm.edu/index.php/Thundercloud

    This may not be considered as a trustful source but as if now i can’t locate any other,but as per my memory of class 12 physics is concerned i am sure that Cloud act as `natural capacitor and when two clouds i.e. two natural capacitor come in contact ,some energy is transferred from one to another and some energy is lost in form of light energy and sound energy(as energy cannot be destroyed, only transferred from one form to another ) i.e. Thunderstorm . so mrunal bhai plz correct me if i am wrong.

  17. Dear mrunal..plz consider this justification.
    Thunder is the sound caused by lightning.
    Lightning discharges may occur between areas of cloud without contacting the ground. When it occurs between two separate clouds it is known as inter-cloud lightning.

    so 1 and 2 are possible answers
    but nimbus clouds are of 2 types nimbostratus n cumulonimbus.
    Nimbostratus, unlike cumulonimbus, is not associated with thunderstorms.- source wikipedia, pg 96 ncert 11th physical
    so thunder occurs when cumulonimbus meet.

    so i think ans 1 is correct.

  18. is it true that upsc 1st check 1st paper and if we go through cut off then only check 2nd paper (csat)….taking abt pre…?

      1. 2 questions of physical geography .
        viz
        1. the most important fishing ground of the world are found in the reasons where…
        2. which of the following is/are the unique characteristic of equatorial forest?
        please reply the same

        1. the most important fishing ground of the world are found in the reasons where…

          answer-option(C) where warm and cold oceanic current meets because this leads the growth of Plankton – food for fish,results in more no. of fishes.

          NEWFOUNDLAND on eastern coast of North America is one of the major fishing centers of the world.

  19. I have a question regarding award of marks….if a ‘debatable’ question indeed has more than one option correct (lets say A & C), will UPSC give marks if one has marked either A or C, or will they choose any one of the options to be correct (lets say A)and provide negative for option C.
    If anybody can please comment on this. Thanks.

  20. kindly refer to ‘FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY’ class 11th NCERT , i quote from page 96,

    “Thunderstorms and Tornadoes
    Other severe local storms are thunderstorms
    and tornadoes. They are of short duration,
    occurring over a small area but are violent.
    Thunderstorms are caused by intense
    convection on moist hot days. A thunderstorm
    is a well-grown cumulonimbus cloud
    producing thunder and lightening. When the
    clouds extend to heights where sub-zero
    temperature prevails, hails are formed and they
    come down as hailstorm. If there is insufficient
    moisture, a thunderstorm can generate duststorms. A thunderstorm is characterised by
    intense updraft of rising warm air, which
    causes the clouds to grow bigger and rise to
    greater height.”

    sir shount the option be 1 only in this question…..

  21. For Night and day question please refer IGNOU ENB 2nd chapter it says revolution of earth around sun in elliptical manner as QUestion ask seasonal not daily as due to rotation . hence answer could be B also acc. to IGNOU .

  22. Sir,
    In the “dynamic changes question” the rotation of earth (statement 5) is responsible for Coriolis Effect which helps in the formation of cyclones. Cyclones rarely form along the equator due to the weak Coriolis effect present in this region.

    1. i would like to share one thing regarding dynamic changes on earth q
      venus has revolution but no season reason no tilt in axis that`s why it think neither rotation nor revolution should be included and a should be the ans

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