1. Prologue
  2. Healthcare/Drug/Medical related
    1. Good Lab practices (GLP)
    2. DPRP
    3. E-psychiatrist or virtual psychiatrist
    4. Health & Physical fitness monitor
    5. Blood Chemistry Analyser & Compact Portable Mobile Lab
    6. Bacteriorhodipsin
    7. Electro-Active Sensor Fabrics
    8. Biosensors
    9. Low Cost Wireless Polysomnograph
    11. Synriam
    12. Lab instruments
  3. Building/Construction related
  4. Metal related
  5. Textile related
  6. Gas related
  7. Electronics/IT Related
  8. Plasma research
  9. Nano Mission


I’m running the Summary of Department of Science and Technology (DST)’s Annual Report 2012-13. This report contains some good material UPSC General Studies Mains Paper 3 Topics:

  1. Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
  2. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Total four part article series:

  1. Agro, EnB, Solar and Water
  2. Medical/Healthcare, Building-construction, textile, metal, plasma, Nano etc. you’re here.
  3. Projects for benefit of SC, ST, Women, States and Human resource development
  4. Mapping, International relation (IR), awareness campaigns and awards.

Healthcare/Drug/Medical related

Good Lab practices (GLP)

  • Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) is a quality system by member nations of countries of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
  • Concerned with monitoring of chemical/tests done in labs for industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, veterinary drugs, pesticides, cosmetic products, food additives, feed additives, etc.
  • Because these drug/chemicals/tests may pose dangers to human/animal/environment.
  • To comply with with this OECD’s GLP (Good lab practices), our government setup National Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) Compliance Monitoring Authority in 2002
  • this body falls under administrative control of DST (Department of Science and Technology)
  • If you run a lab and get GLP certificate from this body=> your lab’s test data will be accepted in OCED countries.


  • The Drug and Pharmaceutical Research Programme (DPRP)
  • DST launched this in the mid 90s.
  • for Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives in drug research.
  • for promoting promoting Industry-Institutional collaboration
  • for developing New Drugs in all systems of medicine
  • for creating infrastructure, mechanisms and linkages to facilitate new drug development
  • +HRD

E-psychiatrist or virtual psychiatrist

  • for effective delivery of mental health care in remote areas.
  • by Health Ministry + Tata consultancy services (TCS)
  • net-based, logically linked clinical diagnostic and management decision support system
  • in English + Hindi
  • to help identifying and managing 18 human psychiatric disorders.
  • Indigenously developed, First ever such system in the world.
  • Pilot testing @HP, JK and Uttarakhand states.

Health & Physical fitness monitor

  • Equipment capable of measuring parameters like electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, pulse rate, body temperature, respiration rate etc.
  • has sensors to measure, display and record physiological information about the patient
  • use? rural/urban Hospitals – intensive care units, operation theaters, emergency and even in Ambulance.
  • Under prototype stage. Currently, there is no indigenous manufactures of Multi-parameter monitors in India.

Blood Chemistry Analyser & Compact Portable Mobile Lab

  • by Amit Bhanagar/IIT with funding from DST.
  • This Analyser supports the analysis of 23 parameters including Haemoglobin count, Blood Glucose, Urea, Uric Acid, Creatinine, Bilirubin, Cholesterol,  etc
  • testing cost: Rs. 120 per person.
  • can test 4000 samples per day
  • Costs ~80000 rupees.


  • Rhodopsin=Fundamental photosynthetic protein in the retina of the eye for vision purposes.
  • They can be produced using bacteria like the Halobacterium Salinarum.
  • Photoactive biomolecules= in great demand for production of optical and electro-optical sensors.
  • Hence Rhodopsins= commercial application. But very expensive at present. Developed countries running secret projects.
  • DST Funding project to indigenously synthesize Bacterio-Rhodopsines from purple bacteria.

Electro-Active Sensor Fabrics

Wearable strain sensor to measure the kinematic movements of elbow angle / knee angle. Will help in following:

  • Physiotherapist / rehabilitation centre to check elbow/knee angle bending over a period of time or after a critical injury.
  • any research relating to arthritis.
  • sports related injuries / treatment
  • knee replacement surgeries.


  • Biomolecular electronics = intergrates biomolecules with the electronics through a transducer.
  • it uses fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene, Organic electronics devices like Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) etc.
  • Result?= the development of biosensors for non-invasive (surgery free) health care, artificial muscles etc.

Low Cost Wireless Polysomnograph

Low Cost Wireless Polysomnograph

  • Polysomnography=Method to evaluate sleep quality.
  • Conventional methods use Electrodes, and Respiration belts to measure these parameters.= uncomfortable for the patient.
  • This low cost wireless polysomnograph uses Thermal infrared imaging to detect sleep quality=no contact with patient’s body=comfortable.


  • Ayurveda’s terms/principles/concepts are not effectively related to modern scientific biology and medicine.
  • Therefore, DST promotes basic research to proof biological basis of Ayurvedic treatment and thus establish Ayurveda’s effects at international level.
  • with help of full participation of scientists and Ayurvedic experts

Clubfoot Braces

  • for use in children with clubfeet (who have been corrected by any surgical or casting method)
  • for maintenance of correction of deformity.
  • Allows greater degree of freedom+comfort to child while wearing the brace.


(became too clichéd)

  • The Drug and Pharmaceutical Research Programme (DPRP)=for Public Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives in drug research.
  • under this DRPA=> new anti malaterial drug Synriam developed by Ranbaxy via PPP route.
  • Synriam contains
    • Arterolane maleate 150mg
    • Piperaquine phosphate 750 mg
  • first of its kind, a New Chemical Entity, fully developed through indigenous R&D which has reached the market place
  • The drug has been launched for global market
  • Will decrease cost of treatment.
Amphomul by Bharat Serum for Kala Azar
Anaemia DST supporting Directly Observed Home Based Daily Iron Therapy to reduce anemia among young women in rural india
biodegradable polymers
  • can be used for artificial organ transplant.
  • but very expensive.
  • DST supporting project to manufacture biodegradable polymers using microbes, agricultural and forest resources.
Cinnamon Extract
  • herbal supplement for blood sugar management using Cinnamon Extract (Dalchini)
  • introduced in the international market in 2010.
compact liquid nitrogen Plant
  • DST funding indigenous development of low cost liquid nitrogen plant ( 7 liter/hr. capacity)
  • they can be used for Biological material preservation (e.g. sperm banks/ stem cells), food & nutrition, and a variety of small scale industrial application
  • for arsenic detection in drinking water
fungisome for Kala Azar (Visceral Leishmaniasis)
Glycine Max for diabetes
  • In Vitro Diagnostic devices (IVDD)=we mostly rely on imports.
  • new project to get proteins regeants from human biological waste, with help of Monoclonal Antibodies.
  • this will help manufacture Indigenous  IVDD (In Vitro Diagnostic Device)=low cost, affordable.
  • loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique
  • for the detection of Chikungunya Viral Genome
laparoscopy and hernia
  • EndoXS= “First Indian Disposable Laparoscopy Trocar”. Low cost and disposable.
  • Easymesh= Hernia repair system. Low cost and disposable.
  • Even potential for Export to other developing countries because of the cost advantage.
learning disorders
  • DST formulated a multidisciplinary programme to address and understand the cognitive deficits of Learning Disabilities in 2012.
  • DST also funds of Cognitive Science like Neuroscience, Psychology, Linguistics, Bio Engineering, Social Engineering, Education, Computer technology & Artificial Intelligence etc.
Multichannel EEG
  • wireless interface to a multichannel EEG recording
  • Useful in remote diagnosis and monitoring in everyday situations-out of the lab or clinic.
  • project for indigenous technology for plastic bi-aspheric lenses (PBLs)
  • These are used for indirect ophthalmoscopy of powers 20 & 28 diopters.
  • projects aims for cost-effective large scale production.
  • Advanced Drug Delivery for cancer drugs.
  • TeleOphthalmology solution on iPhone and iPAD.
rodents and beagle dogs They’re used for doing drug trials. DST funding housing, breeding facilities for them.
Savliv patented folklore medicine, for hepatitic disorders
  • for using S&T to increase quality of life for old people. Examples:
  1. Locator and Communicative device for Dementia Patients.  Uses RFID/GSM/GPS technologies for tracking Dementia patients. SMS alert arrived on the care taker’s mobile phone when clicked, gives the location in Google maps also.
  2. a new technique of denture retention using dental implants
water purification
  • DST supporting projects for removal of arsenic, fluoride, salinity and iron from water.
  • brackish water reverse osmosis membrane @Ichhamati  in West Bengal.
  • Silver nanoparticle-based systems for tannery contaminated waters.

Lab instruments

Microelectrode arrays
  • For detecting biological samples, bio-molecules (e.g. dopamic), toxic wastes (lead, cadmium etc), Industrial effluents in ground water etc.
  • can detect samples even in ultra-low concentration.
  • by IIT Madras
  • this product is not readily available commercially even in foreign market=export potential.
glove box
  • A state-of-the-art inert atmosphere glove box system
  • for doing experiments on organic, inorganic and composite material.
  • testing @IIT Guwahati (designated as Center for Organic Electronics)
Magneto-optic current sensor
  • based on Faraday effect
  • to convert optical power to electrical signal and pass on to a laptop for processing
  • helps measuring magnetic flux density measurement in high EMI environment
Long Pulse Gyrotron
  • this instrument has application in nuclear fusion and plasma experiments.

Building/Construction related

3 aims 4 areas
  1. sustainable
  2. energy efficient
  3. cost effective solutions
  1. Housing,
  2. Roads and Traffic Engineering,
  3. Bridges and Fly-overs
  4. Civil Construction Materials.

Let’s check some progress supported by DST (Department of Science and Technology)


  • A new material in Civil Engineering
  • energy efficient.
  • From farm soils, using Charuzyme microbes.
  • Semi-automated brick molding machine with capacity of 10,000 bricks per day.


  • Glass Fibre Reinforced Gypsum (GFRG) panels/ IIT Madras.
  • These panels made from processed phospho-gypsum (recycled industrial waste from fertilizer industries).=ecofriendly.
  • Minimizes the use of cement, steel, river sand and water=sustainable Development.
  • Cheap in price+helps rapid construction = Affordable Mass Housing.
  • projects to upgrade glass quality to meet international standards.
  • These Glasses have low thermal expansion, high durability, donot crack easily.
  • Kota stone= in Rajasthan
  • Kota Stone units generate huge amount of waste in the form of broken pieces, dust and slurry= pollution.
  • project to use kota stone waste in Flooring and wall tiles.
  • U.S.-India Joint Centre for Advanced HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) and lighting technologies, Thermal comfort etc.
  • to monitor the physical parameters of building using wireless technology
  • helps in disaster preparedness, testing structural strength of building.

Metal related

gas furnace

Gas furnace
  • for rural artisans doing metal work.
  • uses LPG instead of solid fuel (wood, coal etc)=>reduced emissions
  • Better control of the heating rate through easy regulation of LPG and air flow.
  • No need of electricity for operating the furnace except during start-up.
  • tested by IIT Delhi.
  • Continuous Induction Furnace (CONTIFUR) Technology
  • Technology for Production of Steel
  • Utilizes ore waste, non-coking coal for steel production =conservation of resources.
  • Pelletization=process by which iron ore fines converted to spherical balls.
  • usually human supervisor monitors this process by manually observing the size-shape of those balls=chances of error.
  • Eye on Pellet= indigenously developed instrument with camera. It monitors the pellet size, helps the supervisor.

Eye on Pellet

Textile related

Membrane separation system
  • for textile industry to reduce pollution by recycling developed at Synthetic & Art Silk Mills’ Research Association (SASMIRA)
Table Top Light Fastness Testers
  • Light Fastness Tester = used to determine the color fastness and degradation of textiles and dyed material against sunlight.
  • Table top light fastness testers =small, portable, handy and accurate.
  • by Synthetic & Art Silk Mills’ Research Association (SASMIRA)
E-pick Counter for powerloom
  • Normally, in any powerloom, the manufacturer will come to know about the production quality only after 2-3 days i.e. after removal of fabrics from the loom. = not good for quality control.
  • The E-pick instrument will provide online details related to production of machine and defects in fabric to the user on real time basis

e-pick counter for powerlooms

fabric friction tester

Fabric Friction Tester
  • instrument is designed to simulate the movement of human fingers over fabric to sense the roughness/smoothness/slipperiness
  • will help in textile quality control.
  • by IIT Delhi + Department of Textile Technology
Fungi-dye dye production from selected micro fungi Curvularia, Phoma, Pestalotiopsis

will help in industrial textile dyes.

Gas related


  • Handheld portable methanometer
  • display the methane gas concentration
Portable gas mixture analyser
  • portable sensor collects gas data, forwards to laboratory via internet=>chromatography machine at the lab, analyses the data and finds gas mixture composition.
  • this will provide a reliable result within a few minutes whether any toxic gas is present or not inside the manhole and if so, it will alarm the workers.

Electronics/IT Related

Next Gen Networks
  • joint collaboration between India and UK
  • Phase 2 started from 2012 mainly concentrating on three broad areas i.e.
  • Heterogenous Wireless Access Networks (HELNET)
  • Application and Services
  • Core Networks Systems
Modular Tablet PC
  • by two young IITians- Sh. Rohan Pandey and Sh. Rohit Rathi.
  • Their Tablet PC is differentiated from other similar product in the market as it integrates ZigBee along with WiFi, Bluetooth and 3G.
  • designed like a book: and it has 2 displays, one in front like a Magazine and another on the spine to show secondary information.
  • cost Rs.~12000
  • Organic light-emitting devices  (OELD)
  • Use? next generation of flat panel displays. Wide viewing angles, high color contrast, and low power consumption as compared to LCD displays.
  • waste from electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE)
  • DST helping Life cycle analysis & strategies to reduce the environmental impact of electronic waste.
  • Biometric Based Unique Key Generation for Authentic Digital Watermarking.
  • Low temperature Co-fired Ceramic
  • useful multilayer ceramic fabrication technology
  • for compact multilayer circuits, 3D microwave circuit and packaging of such devices.
Eko: Branchless banking
  • Branchless Banking
  • Eko= low-cost payment infrastructure to enable instant small value financial transactions over a mobile phone.
  • Eko uses existing retail shops, telecom connectivity and banking infrastructure to extend branchless banking services to the common man
COMET simulator
  • Virtual Reality based skills training SIMULATOR
  • for skill development of maintenance technicians across industries, particularly aircraft and defense equipment.
  • National Centre for Aerospace Innovation and Research (NCAIR)
  • setup at IIT Bombay in collaboration with the Boeing Company.
  • for design and development of commercial scale aviation technologies, alloys, materials.

Plasma research

following plasma processes are environment friendly, eliminate the use of hazardous chemical/machineries.

  • eco-friendly plasma system to coat brass articles.
  • eco-friendly protective coating for wood crafts using plasma treatment
Tyre Plasma tech for cutting machinery in tyre industry.
Wool @Kullu, first industrial scale system is the world for Angora wool processing using plasmas.

Nano Mission


  1. promotes basic research
  2. develops infra
  3. HRD (M.Sc./M.Tech in Nano Science & Technology)
  4. collaborates with international agencies/foreign countries
    1. PETRA/FLASH projects with Germany
    2. Beamline project with Japan

Some achievements:

  1. Nano drug delivery systems for
    1. Treating bone-disease in women.
    2. delivering anti-retroviral drugs to HIV infected cells;
    3. colon diseases
    4. cancer cells
  2. Jasad bhasma: Used as antiseptic. And Nanotech will increase its therapeutic effect.
  3. Gold nanoparticles can be used to catalyse organic reactions.
  4. FA-SPIONs: Folic Acid Super Paramagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles. Help in cancer treatment.
  5. nano structured electrode materials for increasing life of lithium rechargeable batteries.
  6. Graphene based Nano composites=water purification.