[Model Answers] World History Set#2: League of Nations, Unification of Germany & Italy, Seeds of WW1 by Roman Saini

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Majid Hussain
  1. Prologue
  2. Q4. Germany vs Italy unification
  3. Q5: Towards First World War
  4. Q6: League of Nations


Hi friends, this is Roman again. Hope your mains preparation are at its peak. I had the opportunity to give a TEDXtalk on “How to crack world’s toughest exam”. Click me to watch it on Youtube. Though I strongly feel watching the talk will be way better and highly enriching, yet I have jotted down the keypoints here: (we do care about those who don’t have high bandwidth internet to watch youtube:)

  1. You must either pursue your own dream or you will end helping others achieve theirs.
  2. Competence is more important than confidence. Minimum 1000 hours practice essential to become proficient.
  3. Follow the Roman’s rituals : Eat, Exercise, Sleep for 7-10 hours; Don’t drink desi liquor or smoke as they hamper your memory formation and cognitive performance.
  4. You have to be decisive. You’ve to come out of your comfort zone, go against what your loved ones want.
  5. Stop arguing with others, especially with irrational people because they will bring you down to their level and beat you with their experience.
  6. Overcome SAD: Stress-Anxious-Depressed mentality.
  7. Follow LAR: Logical, Argument and reasoning. Always have a rational outlook, Always question everything.
  8. Be more risk friendly: seduction of safety much more perilous than perception of risk.

Anyways, let’s continue from where we had left. The model world history Q&A for Mains exam. Please provide your valuable feedback in the comment section below. Earlier part available http://Mrunal.org/history

Q4. Germany vs Italy unification

Unification of Germany and Italy

Q. Compare and contrast German unification with Italian unification, with special emphasis on role of Bismarck and Cavour.

Ans. In the history of Europe, Both German and Italian unification were landmark events, with certain similarities and dissimilarities.

  1. Central theme was identical i.e struggle for national unity and its attainment.
  2. Both began the period with disunity and harsh treatment at the Congress of Vienna in 1815. They made unsuccessful attempts in 1848 (instigated by French Revolution), and finally attained unity at almost the same time with similar military operations in 1871.
  3. Both unification occurred with support of strongest state in both nations, Sardinia-Piedmont in Italy and Prussia in Germany.
  4. Both protagonists Count Cavour (Italy) and Bismarck (Germany) opposed republican system and supported strong monarchies.
  5. Both states encountered initial resistance from stubborn Austria and were trying to throw away Austrian yoke from their territories.

Dissimilarities: Resemblances between the two are superficial.

Points in favour of Bismarck:

  1. Germany already had a greater measure of unity prevailing than Italy. There was no foreign rule to be overthrown and no interferences from Pope’s side.
  2. Piedmont was an extremely weak state, so Cavour’s task was far more difficult as he was dependent on foreign aid for Italian Unification.
  3. In contrast, Bismarck just needed neutrality of other states as Prussia already commanded respect and prominent position in Germany. Zollverein provided economic unification which was absent in Italy.

Points in favour of Cavour

  1. Cavour had support of Italian people while Bismarck had to struggle and work against the popular will and force unity upon a reluctant nation.
  2. Cavour had full support of King Emmanuel II, while King William I supported Bismarck bitterly and reluctantly.
  3. Cavour had support of intellectuals such as Mazzini and Garibaldi, while Bismarck had to do everything on his own, unaided and alone.
  4. Bismarck had to wage two wars against two big European powers -Austria & France. Austria was deeply entrenched in Germany and its expulsion would have caused much more opposition in Europe as compared to in Italy. Hence, Bismark faced severe diplomatic difficulties than Cavour.

Q5: Towards First World War

Q. Killing of Duke Ferdinand was the immediate cause for WWI, but the seeds were sown decades back. Critically analyze.

Ans: On 28th July 1914, Austro-Hungary declared war on the Serbia, exactly one month after the assassination of Duke Ferdinand. Although the war was between 2 countries, the whole world came under its ambit only because of the seeds sown decades back through various treaties and events:

Rise of Germany:

  • In 1871, German Unification significantly improved its industrial and economic power.
  • Germany became one of the largest producer in iron, steel, coke, dye and pharmaceuticals, artificial dye and vied with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy.
  • Arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe. All major powers began devoting their industrial base for defense production.


  • To protect infant Germany, Bismarck followed a policy of cautious continentalism.
  • “Triple Alliance” was signed among Germany, Austria, and Italy. But, this mutual alliance system was militant in character.
  • Thus, Bismarck laid down a curtain between Western and Eastern Europe, creating an environment of mutual suspicion among nations.

William II

Kaiser William II introduced the policy of “Aggressive Imperialism” and “Weltpolitik (world politics)” with three objectives:

  1. Interference in world politics
  2. Expansion of Germany
  3. Naval empowerment

This policy gave promotion to alliance system.

  1. Triple Entente among Britain, France and Russia to counter the Germany led Triple Alliance.
  2. France and Russia – Dual Alliance
  3. Britain-Japan friendship treaty (1902)

Although remaining world was out of formal treaties. They too were dragged to serve their colonial masters. Thus a deadly script was written on social, political, military and economic developments, leading to conflicts like Eastern question and Balkan crisis and finally culminated into WW1.

Q6: League of Nations

World History League of nations

Q. What were the important features and achievements of League of Nation. Why do you think it failed?

Ans. In his “14 point program for world peace”, US President Woodrow Wilson, emphasized the need of a global body to provide a forum for resolving international disputes and precluding another world war. Thus League of Nations (LoP) born in Geneva with 31 members initially:

LoP had 3 mechanisms to settle disputes:

  1. Call the 2 states and solve the predicament amicably. The offender nation would be ordered to cede the territory of other state.
  2. If the offender state refuted, League could put economic sanction on aggressor country by severing the economic ties and pushing it towards bankruptcy.
  3. If this too failed, League could permit physical sanctions i.e. combined military action against the offender.

Achievements of the LON:

  1. Solved the disputes among smaller countries such as Poland and Finland, Albania and Czechoslovakia.
  2. Rehabilitation of refugees of World War I.
  3. LoN’s Health organisation fought against the deadly diseases such as Chicken Pox and Malaria. Later it became WHO. (1948)
  4. Proposals for the protection of rights of minority their culture, language and religion e.g. Karachi session 1931

Reasons for Failure:

  1. Absence of big powers in initial years:
    1. League did not invite Germany and Russia for membership; and America eschewed itself from joining League.
    2. These nations were the strongest & most capable of putting military pressure to enforce League’s ideology.
    3. Britain & France were totally exhausted after WW-1 to enforce League’s ideology.
  2. Adamancy of big powers in their personal issue e.g. Japan refused to listen to LoN on Manchuria-issue (1931). Italy did the same on Ethiopia-issue.

Albeit, LoP had certain credit to its name, but due to such inherent weaknesses, inability to enforce the territorial-rights and the unstable economic-political situation of the world, League of Nations failed to fulfil its objective of maintaining the world order.

More questions later. In the meantime,

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105 Comments on “[Model Answers] World History Set#2: League of Nations, Unification of Germany & Italy, Seeds of WW1 by Roman Saini”

  1. If you guys feel these articles are not helpful at all, just let me know and I will stop writing them. Period. I do have many things to learn and enjoy in the training. However, those aspirants who feel they are somewhat benefitted from these answers, or want me to add something more, comment below. Thanks for reading and best of luck for your preparation.

    1. Roman sir, I can say only one thing,that you have already started “Public service” by inspiring us and motivating us with your articles and hangouts even before taking charge as IAS. So it doesn’t matter even anyone say something.Your 5th point in prologue is quite apt here,ignore people with irrational attitude.even I read your interview in ‘Clear IAS’,where you said you often see Mrunal blog. So your presence here is like a boon for us.So please spend your valuable time to continue your article series.And wish you all the best for your future endeavours.Thank you.

    2. Roman Sir,
      if u are reading this then please guide me on ethics part. I highly need ur help….I dont know how to proceed, there are so many junks out in market…pls throw some light. and certainly help us , there are people like me out there who waits for cream guidance.

      FACTORS inviting your help/guidance: away from delhi, no access to coaching classes, no touch/contacts with creams (IAS/IPS….).

    3. Sir!
      u have garnered quite a fan following in a limited span of time.
      u teach well.moreover,these are hidden haters,who are just jealous,
      i wanna quote smthing –Let HATERS be ur MOTIVATER..:)

    4. Thanks for all the help roman sir.. pls continue the work !

    5. no,we love them.dont stop plzzzz

    6. Don’t let the revolution be undermined Roman. You are a source of inspiration for thousands and you know this. India has seen so many IAS toppers,but not a revolutionist like you. Way to go..

    7. Sir, I am waiting for the next topics in Relive the history series ( After German & Italy Unification).

      It would be very helpful if you can explain World War 1 and afterwards.


    8. Hey Roman,
      Some people criticize no matter what! ignore them and please continue the work you are doing.. its awesome..
      i felt benefitted.

      1. Superlike

        1. sir I cannot express more beautifully than this……..this is for you…….

          People r unreasonable,illogical,and self-centered,
          If u do good,people will accuse u of selfish,ulterior motives,
          DO GOOD ANYWAY
          If u r successful,u win false frds and true enemies,
          The good u do will be forgotten tomorrow,
          DO GOOD ANYWAY
          Honesty and frankness make u vulnerable,
          What u spent years building may be destroyed overnight,
          BUILD ANYWAY
          People really need help but may attack u if u help them,
          Give the world the best u have and u will get kicked in the teeth,

          The other day I dreamed that I was at the gates of heaven,and St. Peter said,’Go back to Earth.There r no slums up here’.(MOTHER TERESA)

    9. sir,you are woww..
      .It is because of you, many students from countryside are also in the race…
      thank you sir….
      always bless us….

    10. Don’t pay heed to these people. You’re doing an amazing job and we respect them.
      Some negatives will always be there, keep going Sir. We have learned many things from you
      and continue the same in future.

    11. Please don’t get disheartened by morons’ comments.we are glad to have a person like you.You are helping a lot.No one before has helped us in the way you do.And when you teach us it feels as if a friend is teaching.especially that “whats up”.Keep that up.A revolution is bound to come.

    12. You are doing an incredible job,your articles are crisp and videos are just fantastic.I did not study culture portion for pre and just watched your videos and i scored well enough to qualify for mains.Those who criticize you,are not even worthy of your response.

    13. @Roman Saini Sir, Thank you very very much for your efforts to let other know how to overcome hurdles of CSE. i found it extremely helpful don’t look at over stupid comments as they shows they are not serious UPSC players.

      we want you to continue with the guidance & Articles they are immensely beneficial for me to polish and make my concepts clear.
      God Bless You & Mrunal for such great and innocent effort.

    14. thankuuu..for ur valuable words..
      we definitely going to learn something from u.
      continue ur valuable articles..

      As i m junior to u both by knowledge and age so extremely sorry if my words hurt u..!!!
      but i have one suggestion for u..

      “Let others praise u, dnt praise urself.
      Everyone aspiring for UPSC know u. Let them think about u.!!”
      By saying such things u r showing urself as igoistic.
      I think u have reached such a height where the words of attitude doesn’t suits u.

      Always learn to learn whole life..once again sorry if hurts u.!!

  2. @Roman, please don’t worry about the cats and rats which can’t bite and not in sight also….. you have been a great insipiration from 4-5months now… please continue your good work and atleast for another 1year… I will surely assure u that I’m one among your juniors in academy and career… you are younger to me by age but you really motivated me to think beyond the limits I had drawn!!!
    keep motivating and keep provide your valuable inputs about the exam in phased manner…. love you roman!!
    god bless!!

  3. Very good article.. thank u sir

  4. Answer the following in about 2000 words each:

    1. Identify the landslide prone regions in India and enumerate the contributory
    anthropogenic factors.

    2. What is a cloud burst ? Explain its causes and consequences.

    3. What is black money ? How is it linked to organized crime and terrorism ?

    4. Comment on the efficacy of the “Swachcha Bharat Abhiyaan (SWA)”.

    5. List the important milestones reached by Indian Space Research Organization
    (ISRO) in recent times.

    6. “Innovation is the key to economic leadership.” Analyze the assertion in the light
    of India’s performance on the Global Innovation Index 2014.

    7. Compare and contrast the Dravidian and Nagara forms of temple architecture.

    8. Discuss the impact of HEP projects on the deltaic regions.

    1. *200 words actually!

  5. Roman sir…As u know there are always some non-serious players…….they will comment all non-sense (as they enjoy giggling for time pass) …..please don’t give them bhaw and carry on your great work…..It will be great if u form League of experts (LOE) with Mrunal bhai……….gr8 work carry on :)

  6. Well those of you who find Dr. Roman’s claims unpalatable, just remember that once you are in the “service” who will have to face many who would be obnoxious (Dr. Romani is not even closer to them). Dr. Saini is just trying to bail us through the examination by contributing his bit. If you find his humour or style or whatever disconcerting then don’t read his articles or better still just skim and scan what is there for you and leave the rest! Now he has every right to claim that he is the youngest one to clear UPSC because it is plain fact. If his claim hits you in the face then just focus on the article na! You spend 10 min reading the article and next 2 hours calling him names! That’s awesome! Anyways bye bye for now!

  7. 1. superb articles and videos from your side.. the utility and simplicity reflected in your presentations are of great help

    2. Most of the loose statements made here are on behest of coaching Walla’s…not to mention shameless critics hiding behind a computer without any notable social contribution yet they bark like dogs.

    3. Keep up the good work Roman sir…I have shared all your videos in 14. hostels through LAN in my univ.

  8. Hi Roman…pls do continue with ur articles…it’s a very commendable thing that u are doing, taking out time from ur jam packed schedule and writing all this….I mean how many have really cared to do all this after getting selected…??…..and your continuing stream of guidance clearly stands out….my humble regards

  9. @Roman Sir please continue this awesome work to help us .. specially those who are working .. your videos are vary informative and give inside to preparation .. Thanks you sir .. for these

  10. He should get credit where it is due. But, promoting your TED talk videos in the guise of “tips”. So much self promotion, unbecoming of a civil servant.

    1. promote karne layak kuchh kia hai toh karega..jisne kuchh nahi kiya vo tumhare jaisa gyan dega.

  11. @Roman sir…plz dont leave this noble work ..i myself have learned many thing especially the art of newspaper reading ; how to read yojna n all from u only.i m very sure many more would be like this..those folks who are blaming u for one or more reason r nothing but desperatre buddy..better dont pay heed of those…many more are saluting u for ur kind heart.A big thanks

  12. People who are thinking he is boasting or whatever.

    for all of you——Get some rest or go on holidays.

    Roman Sir is doing Yeoman’s service. What is wrong if he s attending events and motivating people? Every lecture is highly beneficial for me and it would be for others..i am sure.

    Don’t be Judgmental people. During training,How is he managing the time to upload the videos and stuffs for the benefit of all….you never know. So better watch your word b4 vomiting anything.

    “Once a fan alwz a fan”

    Thanku Roman sir. Please continue the good work.

    PS: the way you say….”Hiiii Aspirants” in your videos , energies me.

  13. My 1st nd last comment on this site..

    Thankuuuuuuu mrunal nd Roman nd olll who share their knowledge n xperience with aspirants..hats off guyz 4 ur selfless efforts

    Or ye Jo 2 4 bhailog upr itne josh m criticise kr rhe h na..Agr ojha sir ya vaji k notes dhang se pde hote to itna bhonkne ki na tumhari okaat hoti na time..go 2 ur bed study.in ur style nd get the rank in top slot then plz cm back nd tell others some better ways of showing ur gr8ness..Roman done it bcz usme wo krne ka dum tha..tum log wo kr rhe hi

  14. let me clarify something , a person when enter in mbbs he must be attain 17 year age , now with 17+5.5yr =22.5 now tell me how a person became ias in just 21year age , please roman if you wanna to clerify then its dr madan, student of sms medical college.

    1. he cracked exam when he was still in internship and took completion of degree recently. first we should be in clarity to give a clarification.

  15. for further quires go on aiims / cbse website for pmt.

  16. Roman,i want you to keep writing/motivating like you were on the first day.You must remember that a serious aspirant wont ever comment against and one of the conspiracy theory leads me to the conclusion that there are some coachingwalas here on mrunal who want to preserve their monopoly.Everything in this world which is awesome like you just keeps flowing like a river irrespective of the hurdles.Do that and glory shall be yours and the great Mrunal as well .Both are the pearls of India. !!

    1. ekdumm correct..yahi m soch raha tha..ye wahi coaching waale hai..roman sir aur mrunal sir jaise logon k revolution se sabse pehle yahi coaching walas khatam honge..

  17. “You must either pursue your own dream or you will end helping others achieve theirs” !
    REALLY ? this is your attitude ? what’s wrong in helping others in achieving their dream ?
    With full respect, Mr. Saini, this kind of attitude won’t make world a better place. Your comment unearths your ‘insensitivity’ towards so called ‘failed’ people. Cooperation is better than competition.

  18. ankur you are right I thanks heartily for your attitude

  19. It is only after seeing you that I realised the importance of failure in life. No offence intended…what’s intended is learning.

  20. more points in difference between their unification:

    1. in Italy, creation of a unitary state; in Germany, all the states are left in existence, keeping some sovereignity, but accept the king of Prussia as emperor – unitary state only in 1918

    2.Italian unification supported by France (in part) and Great Britain; German unification adversed by France and Great Britain

  21. Bhai log senti nahi hone ka na overreact karne ka.
    evrybody has right to speak his or her mind.ye sara glamour 1 saal ke liye hi hita he, agle saal May me koi aur superhit ho jayega, lekin kuch qualities hote hain jo hamesha yaad rehte hain. Yes Roman is indeed altruistic but cudhv been better if he were bit less boastful.
    raha 1st chance me clear karne ki baat, wo 2011 se formally prepare ho raha tha,2 yrs min dedicatedly padha he, ho gaya.


    1. Yes Raj.. UPSC accepts caste certificate in Hindi also but it should be in the same format as prescribed by it in the advertisement

  23. Roman ,
    Dont pay heed to these frustu guys..i think ye sb above 26 years age wale h jinka ye last attempt h and preparation/ prelims nhi nikla

  24. Seeing an IAS topper being such boastful the first time. doesn’t look and feel good. sorry, if i am being judgemental but it appears that he had cracked CSE for the sake of just cracking it.

  25. very informative……thank you

  26. thank you sir this is very helpful me

  27. Incredible service by a young officer.
    I hope he change the world when he go to do so.
    Brilliant job.
    Shame on rest those who are criticizing him just because he got into service too early.

  28. Hw to start preparation for prelims ???

  29. What is your Message? Search before asking questions & confine discussions to exams related matter only. sir i am from kashmir i have gone through your video lectures on yoytube sir i found them very useful May God give you long life’happiness and prosperity.sir how can i improve my writing skills up to standard level it has become most diffcult task for me.sir please suggest some tips.

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