[Geography Lecture] Climatology: Atmosphere, Pressure Belts, Wind Types, Temperature inversion

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Mrunal's Economy Course
  1. Prologue
  2. G5/P5: Ocean Temperature
  3. G5/P6: Ocean Water Salinity
  4. G6/P1: Climatology-Atmosphere structure, Aurora
  5. G6/P2: Climatology- Heat budget, Temperature inversion
  6. G6/P3: Climatology: Rainfall Types & Wind Types


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • on 23rd February 2015, two remaining topics of Oceanography were covered and new topic started- climatology.
  • Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into five parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G5/P5: Ocean Temperature

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Recap of the topics covered in previous lecture of oceanography i.e. ocean bottom relief, continental shelf and its resources, Poly-Metallic nodules, Island types: 1) Continental 2) volcanic, 3) sand bar islands 4) coral islands, Coral reef: formation and condition for survival, coral bleaching, Motion of ocean water: horizontal (waves and currents)vertical (tides, upwelling-downwelling),
  2. Ocean Temperature pattern at Latitudinal variation and hemispheric variation
  3. Ocean Temperature pattern at enclosed sea and ocean currents
  4. Ocean Temperature pattern at up-welling regions and down-welling regions
  5. Annual and Diurnal range of temperature
  6. Vertical distribution of temperature in oceans: thermocline, in tropical, temperate and polar region
  7. Questions from this topic in previous UPSC Prelims exams


G5/P6: Ocean Water Salinity

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Salinity of ocean water: meaning
  2. Salt budget of ocean water
  3. Sources of salt in ocean water
  4. Removal of salts from ocean water
  5. Variation in salinity
  6. Pattern in variation of salinity: comparison between equatorial water to tropical; comparison between northern and southern hemisphere
  7. Local variation in salinity at ocean currents, enclosed sea, mouth of big rivers
  8. Map: seas and mouth of big rivers- Mississippi into Gulf of Mexico, Amu Darya and Syr Darya into Aral sea , Black sea, Euphrates and Tigris into Persian gulf
  9. Local variation in salinity: melting of glaciers
  10. Vertical pattern of salinity


G6/P1: Climatology-Atmosphere structure, Aurora

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Origin of atmosphere on earth
  2. Proportion of gases in atmosphere
  3. Structure of atmosphere: Troposphere
  4. Greenhouse effect in atmosphere
  5. Stratosphere
  6. Mesosphere
  7. Noctilucent clouds
  8. Thermosphere
  9. Ionosphere and its layers
  10. Exosphere
  11. Aurora formation
  12. Solving MCQs asked in UPSC Prelims 2011 and 2012.


G6/P2: Climatology- Heat budget, Temperature inversion

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Heat budget: meaning, incoming and outgoing heat
  2. Albedo Meaning and pattern in different surfaces
  3. Movement of air: advection and convection
  4. Vertical movement of air: stability and instability
  5. Low pressure and high pressure conditions
  6. Adiabatic lapse rate- Wet adiabatic lapse rate and Dry adiabatic lapse rate
  7. Temperature inversion: meaning and examples at tropopause, cool winter night, valley inversion,
  8. Implications of temperature inversion: fog, frost and stability
  9. Condensation of water droplet: cloud, fog, dew drop and frost
  10. Reasons for formation of fog
  11. Types of fog: mist, haze, fog and smog
  12. Difference between fog and smog
  13. Difference between smog and photochemical smog
  14. Solving MCQs asked in UPSC Prelims 2011, 2012 and 2013


G6/P3: Climatology: Rainfall Types & Wind Types

Geography Climatology

  1. Understanding Precipitation and Evaporation
  2. Humidity: absolute humidity vs. specific humidity
  3. Precipitation and relative humidity
  4. Types of clouds
  5. Types of rainfall: convectional rainfall, orographic rainfall, cyclonic rainfall, frontal rainfall
  6. Pressure system of the world
  7. Equatorial low pressure belt
  8. Sub-tropical high pressure belt
  9. Sub-polar low pressure belt
  10. Polar high
  11. Wind system of the world
  12. Planetary winds
  13. Trade winds
  14. Reason for location of Tropical deserts: 1. trade winds and 2. Ocean currents
  15. Westerlies and their location
  16. Polar easterlies
  17. Apparent movement of the sun according to season
  18. Movement of pressure system due to apparent movement of sun
  19. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  20. Seasonal winds: monsoon winds
  21. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  22. Local winds: mountain winds, cold and warm
  23. Local winds: cold from lands and warm winds from deserts
  24. Local winds in India
  25. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  26. Mountain breeze vs Valley breeze
  27. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  28. Land-breeze vs Sea-breeze
  29. Solving the questions asked in UPSC Prelims 2011, Mains 2013


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63 Comments on “[Geography Lecture] Climatology: Atmosphere, Pressure Belts, Wind Types, Temperature inversion”

  1. Sir,
    please give nios material and all topics which u give in english in HINDI it will help many other aspirants of ias from hindi medium please.Besides this you are doing a great work for helping us if you will it will great help for us please sir….

  2. Geography class not satisfied.. Because of language problem for south Indians (Hindi) so please try to do it from English..

  3. Geography lectures ppt are incomplete… Few slides are missing(specially oceonograhy and climatology)… Plz upload updated file.. Thankyou

    1. please mrunal bhai update the correct PPT

  4. Nice explaination mam.

  5. nice work. thanku very much ma’am

  6. maam pls cover ocean density and density stratification . Didnt found it in video

  7. sir
    plz upload the videos of the HISTORY once …and it is time for ECOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY also….it will be very helpful for all of us ,,,,

  8. In English please

  9. thanks a lot mrunal sir and madam

  10. From where can I download the presentation? I did not find it in the download section of Mrunal.

    1. Found ’em. Moderator can delete these comments.

  11. I am working in cisf and wanna appear in 2015 cse how I can do this guide me


  13. Mrunal is highly useful for competitive exams

  14. Very nice lecture mam…

  15. Dear Mrunal sir,
    thanks a lot for providing such fantastic materials free of cost (coaching institutes charges lakhs for it)
    In return of your such great help ,we also want to help you as far as possible
    Please guide us,how to help u


  17. Some slides shown in the video lecture are actually missing in the downloaded ppts. e.g. ma’am was talking about ionosphere, aurora etc. in the video. but the corresponding slides were missing in the downloaded slides. Sir, please make available the updated slides.

  18. Some slides shown in the video lecture are actually missing in the downloaded ppts. e.g. ma’am was talking about ionosphere, aurora etc. in the video. but the corresponding slides were missing in the downloaded slides. Also, the answers of some of the questions discussed is correct in the video and given wrong in the slides => anomaly.

    Sir, please make available the updated slides.

  19. Mrunal Sir, ppt given in the download section for Climatology lectures are different from what Mam is using..

  20. Respected Mam/sir, in one of the ppt related to lapse rate and atmospheric stability and instability….mam mentioned
    “conditional stability” conditions Wet ALR < normal ALR < dry ALR……my doubt is that this is the condition for " conditional instability" .
    plz clear my doubt.

  21. Dear Mrunal…can you pls upload the first four lectures of oceanography, i.e. from G5 P1 to G5 P4. I m not able to locate it on this website..Thank You….Great work boss.

  22. hey, the material uploaded for climatology is different from the ppt used in the class.. can u please upload the relevant ppt.

  23. We cound not find the location where she is pointing

    example in a world map she say” here low pressure is created .. wind pass this way…. but unable to figure out that”

    next time please use the laser pointer in MS Powerpoint 13
    it cann be recorded and explained as well in lecture

  24. sir, please provide a topic list for mains to cover

  25. Sir, is there any possibility to receive the matters in English?

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