1. Prologue
  2. G5/P5: Ocean Temperature
  3. G5/P6: Ocean Water Salinity
  4. G6/P1: Climatology-Atmosphere structure, Aurora
  5. G6/P2: Climatology- Heat budget, Temperature inversion
  6. G6/P3: Climatology: Rainfall Types & Wind Types


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • on 23rd February 2015, two remaining topics of Oceanography were covered and new topic started- climatology.
  • Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into five parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G5/P5: Ocean Temperature

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Recap of the topics covered in previous lecture of oceanography i.e. ocean bottom relief, continental shelf and its resources, Poly-Metallic nodules, Island types: 1) Continental 2) volcanic, 3) sand bar islands 4) coral islands, Coral reef: formation and condition for survival, coral bleaching, Motion of ocean water: horizontal (waves and currents)vertical (tides, upwelling-downwelling),
  2. Ocean Temperature pattern at Latitudinal variation and hemispheric variation
  3. Ocean Temperature pattern at enclosed sea and ocean currents
  4. Ocean Temperature pattern at up-welling regions and down-welling regions
  5. Annual and Diurnal range of temperature
  6. Vertical distribution of temperature in oceans: thermocline, in tropical, temperate and polar region
  7. Questions from this topic in previous UPSC Prelims exams


G5/P6: Ocean Water Salinity

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Salinity of ocean water: meaning
  2. Salt budget of ocean water
  3. Sources of salt in ocean water
  4. Removal of salts from ocean water
  5. Variation in salinity
  6. Pattern in variation of salinity: comparison between equatorial water to tropical; comparison between northern and southern hemisphere
  7. Local variation in salinity at ocean currents, enclosed sea, mouth of big rivers
  8. Map: seas and mouth of big rivers- Mississippi into Gulf of Mexico, Amu Darya and Syr Darya into Aral sea , Black sea, Euphrates and Tigris into Persian gulf
  9. Local variation in salinity: melting of glaciers
  10. Vertical pattern of salinity


G6/P1: Climatology-Atmosphere structure, Aurora

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Origin of atmosphere on earth
  2. Proportion of gases in atmosphere
  3. Structure of atmosphere: Troposphere
  4. Greenhouse effect in atmosphere
  5. Stratosphere
  6. Mesosphere
  7. Noctilucent clouds
  8. Thermosphere
  9. Ionosphere and its layers
  10. Exosphere
  11. Aurora formation
  12. Solving MCQs asked in UPSC Prelims 2011 and 2012.


G6/P2: Climatology- Heat budget, Temperature inversion

UPSC Geography Study Material

  1. Heat budget: meaning, incoming and outgoing heat
  2. Albedo Meaning and pattern in different surfaces
  3. Movement of air: advection and convection
  4. Vertical movement of air: stability and instability
  5. Low pressure and high pressure conditions
  6. Adiabatic lapse rate- Wet adiabatic lapse rate and Dry adiabatic lapse rate
  7. Temperature inversion: meaning and examples at tropopause, cool winter night, valley inversion,
  8. Implications of temperature inversion: fog, frost and stability
  9. Condensation of water droplet: cloud, fog, dew drop and frost
  10. Reasons for formation of fog
  11. Types of fog: mist, haze, fog and smog
  12. Difference between fog and smog
  13. Difference between smog and photochemical smog
  14. Solving MCQs asked in UPSC Prelims 2011, 2012 and 2013


G6/P3: Climatology: Rainfall Types & Wind Types

Geography Climatology

  1. Understanding Precipitation and Evaporation
  2. Humidity: absolute humidity vs. specific humidity
  3. Precipitation and relative humidity
  4. Types of clouds
  5. Types of rainfall: convectional rainfall, orographic rainfall, cyclonic rainfall, frontal rainfall
  6. Pressure system of the world
  7. Equatorial low pressure belt
  8. Sub-tropical high pressure belt
  9. Sub-polar low pressure belt
  10. Polar high
  11. Wind system of the world
  12. Planetary winds
  13. Trade winds
  14. Reason for location of Tropical deserts: 1. trade winds and 2. Ocean currents
  15. Westerlies and their location
  16. Polar easterlies
  17. Apparent movement of the sun according to season
  18. Movement of pressure system due to apparent movement of sun
  19. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  20. Seasonal winds: monsoon winds
  21. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  22. Local winds: mountain winds, cold and warm
  23. Local winds: cold from lands and warm winds from deserts
  24. Local winds in India
  25. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  26. Mountain breeze vs Valley breeze
  27. Wind system of the world: variable winds
  28. Land-breeze vs Sea-breeze
  29. Solving the questions asked in UPSC Prelims 2011, Mains 2013