1. Prologue
  2. G1/P1:  longitudes, latitudes, Timezones and Dateline
  3. G1/P2: Earth’s Interior, S & P waves, Rock-Cycle, Geological Time-eras
  4. G1/P3: Continental Drift Theory
  5. G1/P4: Sea Floor Spreading Theory


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • First session began on 2st February 2015, and uploaded on youtube. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

Geography Lecture UPSC

G1/P1:  longitudes, latitudes, Timezones and Dateline

Language: Hindi, Topics Covered:

  1. Longitudes and Latitudes: definitions and concepts.
  2. Why is there heat deficit and heat surplus regions on earth?
  3. Reason for season on earth, Day and night time variation, from season to season
  4. What are Solstice and equinox? UPSC-CSAT-2013 question on day-night time variation
  5. Daylight saving in temperate regions
  6. Longitude – prime meridian, International dateline (IDL)
  7. How moving to west to IDL one day is lost and how moving to east of IDL one day is gained? Example of Russia and Alaska
  8. Standard time: Indian standard time, Chaibaagan time zone issue
  9. Exercises – calculation regarding standard time of a place
  10. Solved UPSC CSAT Prelim Question 1999, 2006, 2008
  11. Map explanations for Malacca strait, Strait of Florida, Strait of Gibraltar

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/SMPO60DOTKQ

G1/P2: Earth’s Interior, S & P waves, Rock-Cycle, Geological Time-eras

  1. Origin of the earth, Nebular theory of Laplace
  2. Speculation about earth’s interior: Heaviest elements are placed at the core and lighter elements are at the surface.
  3. Interior of the earth: Density study, Temperature study, Direct and indirect evidences
  4. SIAL and SIMA concepts- Edward Suess
  5. Seismic wave studies: Propagation of S-Waves and P-Waves
  6. Layers of earth’s interior: Lithosphere, asthenosphere, mantle, outer core, inner core.
  7. Composition of interior of the earth and the crust.
  8. Rocks of the continental crust
  9. Rock-cycle (Igneous rock, sedimentary, metamorphous)
  10. Properties of Igneous rocks
  11. Properties of sedimentary rocks
  12. Properties of metamorphous rocks
  13. Prev. years question on rocks
  14. Geological history of the earth: Super continent –Rodinia, Breaking up of Rodinia
  15. Formation and breaking of Pangaea
  16. What are Panthalasa
  17. Laurasia, Gondwana and Tethys sea
  18. Breaking up of Gondwana
  19. Movement of Indian plate

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/DzAH67tsmh8

G1/P3: Continental Drift Theory

  1. Alfred Wegener and his theory.
  2. Evidences and Limitations of Continental drift theory
  3. UPSC 2013 Mains question on this topic
  4. Drawing maps for India and world in minutes.
  5. Arthur Holmes: convection current theory
  6. Driving force behind the continental drift

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/IxpPoVc7y3U

G1/P4: Sea Floor Spreading Theory

  1. Beginning of Sea-floor spreading theory
  2. Mapping of Sea-floor in 1950s
  3. 3 questions raised after sea-floor mapping
  4. Henry Hass and Dietz – theory
  5. Mid- oceanic ridge – Mechanism and distribution in the world oceans,
  6. Trenches – distribution in the world oceans,  Mechanism of trenches, the Mariana trench – deepest trench of the world
  7. UPSC Prelim 2006 q. on trench
  8. Concept of Palaeo-magnetism, geomagnetism, Vine and Mattheus

Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/BlBg5GVhZ5k