1. Prologue
  2. G7/P5: Indian Monsoon Mechanism & seasons of India
  3. G7/P6: Climatic regions of India
  4. G7/P7: Water resource in India: Surface vs. Ground
  5. G7/P8: India- Floods, Droughts & Watershed Management


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 16th March, continuation of the Indian geography segment with water and climate related topics.  Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G7/P5: Indian Monsoon Mechanism & seasons of India

Indian Monsoon

  1. Indian monsoon: unique features, mechanism
  2. Tropical easterly Jet
  3. Pressure system of earth
  4. Second equatorial trough
  5. Somali Jet and Somali current
  6. Permanent Jet stream on earth
  7. Sub-tropical westerly Jet: winter, early summer and monsoon
  8. Indian Ocean Dipole and El-Nino.
  9. Reasons for Fluctuation in Monsoon: ITCZ, second equatorial trough, sub-tropical westerly Jet, Tibetan plateau, Mascarene High, El-Nino
  10. Onset of Monsoon: two branches: Arabian branch and Bay of Bengal branch
  11. Arabian branch: western Ghats, Arvalli and Arabian Branch
  12. Bay of Bengal/ eastern branch: Eastern Ghats, chhota Nagpur plateau and central highlands and Purvanchal.
  13. Rainfall pattern of India
  14. Retreating Monsoon and tropical cyclone
  15. Winter rainfall on TN coast
  16. Winter: western disturbances in north India
  17. Summer season: pre-monsoon showers

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/gUHto7ASd8Q

G7/P6: Climatic regions of India

Indian Forest Types

  1. Climatic regions of India – division by Trewartha (Symbols)
  2. Types of Natural vegetation in India
  3. Tropical forest: 2 types-Moist and dry
  4. Tropical wet-evergreen forest
  5. Tropical semi- wet-evergreen forest
  6. Tropical Moist deciduous forest
  7. Tropical Dry forest: 3 types-Dry evergreen, dry deciduous, tropical thorn
  8. Tropical Dry evergreen forest
  9. Tropical Dry Deciduous forest
  10. Comparison : tropical moist deciduous, Tropical dry deciduous and tropical thorn
  11. Tropical thorn
  12. Montane forest: 2 types-Subtropical and Temperate forest
  13. Montane subtropical forest: 3 types-Sub-tropical broad leaved,Subtropical- moist pine,Sub-tropical dry evergreen
  14. Rainfall pattern in Montane sub-tropical forest
  15. Sub-tropical broad-leaved forest
  16. Sub-tropical moist-pine forest
  17. Sub-tropical dry evergreen forest
  18. Montane Temperate forest: 3 types-Wet Temperate,moist Temperate,dry Temperate
  19. Rainfall pattern in Montane temperate forest-Wet, Moist and Dry
  20. Alpine forest
  21. Forest-type and area
  22. UPSC Prelims 2010 question

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/2a6XtVJkv-c

G7/P7: Water resource in India: Surface vs. Ground

India Groundwater

  1. Surface water resource of India: Comparison between Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers
  2. Telangana plateau – water resource
  3. Ground water resource: Meaning of water table
  4. 4 regions of ground water reserves in India: alluvial plains, Bhabhar, East-west coastal plains, Peninsular blocks
  5. Ground water reserve in river basin: descending order
  6. Ground water usage: descending order
  7. Ground water usage: urban and rural
  8. Tube-well usage: state-wise
  9. Present availability of ground water
  10. Ground water-pollution
  11. Artificial recharge and rainwater harvesting technique to conserve ground water reservoir
  12. Issues related to water resources

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/yGdV5DxHdf0

G7/P8: India- Floods, Droughts & Watershed Management

watershed  Management

  1. Flood: meaning, natural reasons, anthropogenic reasons, flood prone areas in India
  2. Flood solution: administrative and Ecological
  3. Drought: Areas affected
  4. Problems of drought and agrarian poverty
  5. Small-drought preventing techniques
  6. Drought-prone areas vs. rainfed areas
  7. Importance of rainfed areas in India
  8. Watershed management: meaning, components, check-dams, afforestation
  9. Time-line of watershed development in India and case studies
  10. Agro-practice, crop choices and irrigation choice for drought-prone areas
  11. Drought-prone area development plan
  12. Agro-forestry
  13. precap of next lecture: soil types and land usage pattern.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/p37ad1xdEII

Visit youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel For more lectures on UPSC General Studies.