[Geography Lecture] Indian Forest Types, Climatic Regions, Floods, Droughts, Watershed Management

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Mrunal's Economy Course
  1. Prologue
  2. G7/P5: Indian Monsoon Mechanism & seasons of India
  3. G7/P6: Climatic regions of India
  4. G7/P7: Water resource in India: Surface vs. Ground
  5. G7/P8: India- Floods, Droughts & Watershed Management


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 16th March, continuation of the Indian geography segment with water and climate related topics.  Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into four parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G7/P5: Indian Monsoon Mechanism & seasons of India

Indian Monsoon

  1. Indian monsoon: unique features, mechanism
  2. Tropical easterly Jet
  3. Pressure system of earth
  4. Second equatorial trough
  5. Somali Jet and Somali current
  6. Permanent Jet stream on earth
  7. Sub-tropical westerly Jet: winter, early summer and monsoon
  8. Indian Ocean Dipole and El-Nino.
  9. Reasons for Fluctuation in Monsoon: ITCZ, second equatorial trough, sub-tropical westerly Jet, Tibetan plateau, Mascarene High, El-Nino
  10. Onset of Monsoon: two branches: Arabian branch and Bay of Bengal branch
  11. Arabian branch: western Ghats, Arvalli and Arabian Branch
  12. Bay of Bengal/ eastern branch: Eastern Ghats, chhota Nagpur plateau and central highlands and Purvanchal.
  13. Rainfall pattern of India
  14. Retreating Monsoon and tropical cyclone
  15. Winter rainfall on TN coast
  16. Winter: western disturbances in north India
  17. Summer season: pre-monsoon showers

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/gUHto7ASd8Q

G7/P6: Climatic regions of India

Indian Forest Types

  1. Climatic regions of India – division by Trewartha (Symbols)
  2. Types of Natural vegetation in India
  3. Tropical forest: 2 types-Moist and dry
  4. Tropical wet-evergreen forest
  5. Tropical semi- wet-evergreen forest
  6. Tropical Moist deciduous forest
  7. Tropical Dry forest: 3 types-Dry evergreen, dry deciduous, tropical thorn
  8. Tropical Dry evergreen forest
  9. Tropical Dry Deciduous forest
  10. Comparison : tropical moist deciduous, Tropical dry deciduous and tropical thorn
  11. Tropical thorn
  12. Montane forest: 2 types-Subtropical and Temperate forest
  13. Montane subtropical forest: 3 types-Sub-tropical broad leaved,Subtropical- moist pine,Sub-tropical dry evergreen
  14. Rainfall pattern in Montane sub-tropical forest
  15. Sub-tropical broad-leaved forest
  16. Sub-tropical moist-pine forest
  17. Sub-tropical dry evergreen forest
  18. Montane Temperate forest: 3 types-Wet Temperate,moist Temperate,dry Temperate
  19. Rainfall pattern in Montane temperate forest-Wet, Moist and Dry
  20. Alpine forest
  21. Forest-type and area
  22. UPSC Prelims 2010 question

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/2a6XtVJkv-c

G7/P7: Water resource in India: Surface vs. Ground

India Groundwater

  1. Surface water resource of India: Comparison between Himalayan rivers and Peninsular rivers
  2. Telangana plateau – water resource
  3. Ground water resource: Meaning of water table
  4. 4 regions of ground water reserves in India: alluvial plains, Bhabhar, East-west coastal plains, Peninsular blocks
  5. Ground water reserve in river basin: descending order
  6. Ground water usage: descending order
  7. Ground water usage: urban and rural
  8. Tube-well usage: state-wise
  9. Present availability of ground water
  10. Ground water-pollution
  11. Artificial recharge and rainwater harvesting technique to conserve ground water reservoir
  12. Issues related to water resources

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/yGdV5DxHdf0

G7/P8: India- Floods, Droughts & Watershed Management

watershed  Management

  1. Flood: meaning, natural reasons, anthropogenic reasons, flood prone areas in India
  2. Flood solution: administrative and Ecological
  3. Drought: Areas affected
  4. Problems of drought and agrarian poverty
  5. Small-drought preventing techniques
  6. Drought-prone areas vs. rainfed areas
  7. Importance of rainfed areas in India
  8. Watershed management: meaning, components, check-dams, afforestation
  9. Time-line of watershed development in India and case studies
  10. Agro-practice, crop choices and irrigation choice for drought-prone areas
  11. Drought-prone area development plan
  12. Agro-forestry
  13. precap of next lecture: soil types and land usage pattern.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/p37ad1xdEII

Visit youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel For more lectures on UPSC General Studies.

Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

80 Comments on “[Geography Lecture] Indian Forest Types, Climatic Regions, Floods, Droughts, Watershed Management”

  1. dear mrunal sir
    firstly i heartly appriciate of your good work on this field . I also thanks to all your team mate who has been working non stop .

  2. Hatsoff mam…keep up good work. .,..many students are benifiting from these lecturers..

  3. I have a doubt regarding tropical easterly jet(TEJ). As explained by Ma’am,its path is from somalia to tibetian plateau. however, in many places, the tropical easterly jet has been named the African Easterly jet and flows parallel to latitutes over northern africa. Moreover, the path as given by rajtanil ma’am does not indicate easterly origin. please clarify!! @mrunal sir, @rajtanil ma’am. @ANYBODY!

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