1. Prologue
  2. G8/P1: Soil profile, erosion, conservation, salinity, desertification
  3. G8/P2: Soils of India
  4. G8/P3: Indian Agriculture and industries Part1


  • These geography lectures are conducted by Ms. Rajtanil at Sardar Patel institute of Public Administration (SPIPA), Ahmedabad.
  • On 23rd March, continuation of the Indian geography segment with soil and agriculture related topics. Total ~2:30 hours but I’ve split it into three parts.
  • PowerPoint of the lecture, available at Mrunal.org/Download
  • Medium of instruction- Hindi.
  • English version not possible for the moment, because faculties are required to teach at this batch, in Hindi/Gujarati only. Besides, same content is available in English in the powerpoints.

G8/P1: Soil profile, erosion, conservation, salinity, desertification

soil erosion in india

  1. Recap of previous lecture:
  2. Soil formation: 5 factors affecting it: rock, climate, relief, biota and time.
  3. Transportation in soil: capillary and leaching process
  4. Types of leaching process
  5. 3 chemical process in soil: capillary action, leaching and gleying
  6. Soil Profile, Leaching and capillary in horizons
  7. Soil erosion: meaning, factors responsible and implications.
  8. Soil conservation techniques: structural and non-structural
  9. Structural solution for soil conservation: slopes, Stone pitching and wire netting
  10. Structural solution for soil conservation: coastal areas- Tetra-pods, groyne
  11. Non-structural solutions for soil conservation: afforestation, slopes, agro-practice reforms, Strip farming, mulching, desert margins – transverse farming
  12. Soil salinity: reasons, implications.
  13. Structural solutions to combat soil salinity- washing, underground piping, canals and amendments.
  14. Non- Structural solution from soil salinity:
  15. Desertification: meaning, implications and preventive measures.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/jOIy6g372nQ

G8/P2: Soils of India

soil types in India

  1. Alluvial soil: properties, area, comparison from east to west.
  2. Red soil: formation, properties, problem areas, UPSC MCQ.
  3. Black soil: formation, properties, areas, minerals.
  4. Lateritic soil: properties, agriculture, bauxite mining, UPSC question
  5. Mountainous soil: podzolic soil; chelation process
  6. Desert soil, Mangrove soil, Saline-alkaline soil
  7. Land use pattern in India: total area under India
  8. Desired land use pattern: forest, development land, fallow land, pasture land.
  9. Need for Reduction in net sown area: China vs India.
  10. Release of net sown area for forest and development purpose
  11. Gross sown area and Cropping intensity

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/wxM_EFXdeoE

G8/P3: Indian Agriculture and industries Part1

Indian agriculture

  1. Introduction to Indian Economic geography
  2. Importance of agriculture in India, its features, targets
  3. Agricultural efficiency and productivity, patterns.
  4. Factors to increase agriculture productivity: nutrition, irrigation, forward linkages
  5. Agricultural seasons in India
  6. Major crops of India
  7. Rice: requirements, cropping techniques, area under cultivation
  8. Wheat producing areas
  9. Pulses- types and problems in cultivation, Government schemes.
  10. Millets, Jawar, Bajra, Ragi, Cotton
  11. Cotton producing areas
  12. Textile industries in India: history, Maharashtra, Gujarat, South India, and UPSC prelim questions.
  13. Sugarcane producing areas, shift in location, South India and UPSC mains question
  14. Oil-seeds- types, problems in cultivation, Government schemes to promote it.
  15. Tea plantation and UPSC Mains question.
  16. Jute- retting, importance in economy
  17. Spices production, importance of Karnataka and UPSC prelim questions.

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/r2ZR2Czghho

Visit youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel For more lectures on UPSC General Studies.