- E2/P2: Video Lecture by
- Moral Attitude: Meaning
- Moral Attitude: Implications of
- Role of Social Media in Moral Attitude
- Political Attitude and ideologies
- Factors affecting Political attitude
- Role of Social Media in Political Attitude
- Strength of Attitude
- Accessibility of Attitude
- Milgram Experiment
E2/P1: Video Lecture by Kavan Limbasiya (AIR-198/CSE’14)
In the previous part (E2/P1), we understood the meaning, structure and function of attitude. Now we’ll see the moral and political attitudes, for UPSC General studies paper 4 (GS4)
Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/1oUiCAN3IT0
Moral Attitude: Meaning
- Not all attitudes are concerned with Morality. E.g. My attitude towards snakes has nothing to do with morality. But my attitude towards democracy will have moral undertones.
- So, Moral attitudes are based on moral convictions of what is “Right” and what is “wrong”.
- Moral attitudes are stronger than moral beliefs.
- Family, society, religion and education play important role in framing those moral convictions.
Moral Attitude: Implications of
|Positive Implications||Negative Implications|
|Tied up with strong emotions. Hence prevents deviant behaviors among normal folks due to fear of social Osctricization e.g. child molestation, incest.||
|Motivates a person towards Altruism, volunteerism, social service.||Motivates a person towards riots, genocide and terrorism.|
Role of Social Media in Moral Attitude
- Through facebook, whatsapp etc. youngsters are exposed to vulgar jokes, MMS, porn every day.
- This Adolescent curiosity about sex/porn vs. moral lesson to respect women = cognitive dissonance.
- According to studies, such boys have less empathy towards rape victims, aggressive behavioral tendencies, increased interest in coercing partners towards unwanted sex and so on.
- Bad/careless parenting + indifferent attitude of teachers + Peer pressure + exposure on TV/internet = A Teenager’s moral compass doesn’t point to straight north.
- Such teenagers feel attracted towards doing ‘wrong’ things through internet, because internet gives them following advantages
|1.Anonymity||You can remain unknown / untraceable by police.|
|2.Action at distance||You don’t need to come near the victim.|
|3.Automation||Through computer scripts, you can circulate same message/photos on thousands of online groups within few keystrokes.|
|4.Accessibility||Dataplans getting cheap everyday|
|5.Perpetuity||Text-images will multiply and exist indefinitely. So, even if say an MMS is removed from one web-portal by court order, it’ll continue to circulate among others.|
|1.Hacking||Unauthorized access to system to acquire information|
|4.Harassment||Through persistence calls, messages, emails|
Cyber-violence against women, is prevalent in all types of countries
- First world: pornography, and sites such as Ashley Madison that help married people to cheat on their partners.
- Developing countries: ~2 lakh children are kidnapped and sold every year in China through online portal (2014 UN Gender report)
- Least Developed countries: Currently mobile phones are most commonly used tools for cyber violence in Nigeria, Kenya – such as Viral rape videos/MMS.
Self-Study: Government of India decides to partially lift the ban on pornographic sites.
Political Attitude and ideologies
It defines your like or dislike for a political person, party or ideology.
|Liberal/Moderate||They support basic ideas of liberty, equality and democracy but want reforms in the system albeit not in extreme/violent manner but through constitutional / legal means.|
|Conservative||Want Status quo. They believe changes or reforms will not improve the situation.|
Factors affecting Political attitude
|Residence||“Local” unemployed youth more likely to align with party that promises “action” against the migrants or reservation based on region.|
|Family||Children more likely to espouse the political ideology of their parents.|
|Race||If a race feels they’re deprived of opportunities because of other races, then more likely to lean towards a party offering radical solutions against other races. E.g. German “Aryans” joining Nazi party.|
|Gender||Females more likely to lean towards liberal ideology.|
|Education||School syllabus plays an important role. A Chinese may find Indian democracy as repulsive, because he has been taught that Mao’s Communist ideology is best.|
|Conception about human nature||
|Social media||The information processed and shared on social media, molds a person’s political views. Social media has played big role in swinging the opinion of youth towards Modi/BJP during 2014 General elections.|
Keep in mind that a person’s political attitude is shaped not by any single, but complex combination of all above factors. E.g. A “Poor” Muslim youth may be pro-Congress/SP but a Rich Dawoodi Bohra Muslim may be pro-Modi.
Role of Social Media in Political Attitude
- In 2014 general election, ~16 crore voters were 18-24 age group first time voters. In such demographic composition, social media/internet plays huge role in shaping political attitude.
- Social media has helped both Modi and Kejriwal to reach surprise victories in election.
- Social media is full of both Hindu vs. Muslim, India vs Pakistan, Shia vs. A teenager exposed to such groups, is likely to develop extreme radical or reactionary political views.
- ISIS is using social media to recruit soldiers for their war.
- Muzaffarnagar riots were a result of a viral video about eve teasing. Here moral attitude (about dignity of women) + Religion + politics created a deadly stew.
- Whatsapp has become an App for activism and empowerment- for coordination of political and violent agitation. During recent Paatidar agitation in Gujarat, mobile internet was banned to prevent perpetrators from coordinating their attacks/spreading false rumors.
- Self-Study: Section 66A and freedom of speech
Strength of Attitude
Government of Maharashtra has imposed beef ban in the states. How do you feel about this?
|Strength of attitude||Result?|
|Strong||You’ll go out in dharnaa-Pradarshan for/against meat-ban|
|Neutral||You’ll not say /do anything thinking “this doesn’t concern me at personal level”.|
|Mild||You may murmur about it to your family members while watching news.|
In short, we can ‘predict’ behavior by measuring strength of the attitude.
Accessibility of Attitude
|Conscious||You’re aware. Those “C-A-B” components immediately light in your brain.|
|Hidden (unconscious)||You’re unaware. “C-A-B” won’t immediately reflect in your thoughts.|
Study: Participants were asked “will you vote for Obama?”
- Those who immediately raised hands (conscious), they’ll go for voting on the election date.
- Those who raise hands after few minutes – they did not go to voting.
- Hitler was an evil dictator. But even ordinary Germans participated in atrocities against Jews. Why?
- Prof. Stanley Milgram of Yale University (1961) began experiment to study it.
- The participant (teacher) would ask a series of questions to another “participant” (learner).
- The teachers were instructed to shock the learners whenever an incorrect answer was given.
- The learner was not a participant at all but actually an actor who would pretend to be hurt by the shocks and yell out in pain when the button was pushed.
- 2/3rd of the participants gave shocks upto fatal level (450 volts).
- Because behind participant, there was a doctor, he’ll keep saying “go on…increase the voltage, person will not die.”
Moral of the story
- Lack of accountability, overwrites your conscience: Doctor is the authoritarian figure. Individual participant’s conscience is overpowered, when participant thinks “it’s not my responsibility, I’m only following orders”.
- Authoritarian figure can overwrite your conscience: Hitler was a great orator; he could sway the crowd in his favor just by a speech.
- Peer-pressure is stronger than obedience: If there are two participants, second participants refuses to give shock to the subject and storms out of the room, then first participant may also walk away
- Thus, Strength wise: peer-pressure (Conformity) > obedience > conscience.
This can explain
|Nuremberg trials||German officers justified their actions saying we were just following orders (obedience).|
|Peer-pressure. You’ve to participate, if others are participating. (conformity). Examples of Mass-Hysteria- “Ganpati drinking milk”|
In the next part (E2/P3) we’ll see the factors responsible for attitude formation, prejudice, discrimination and how to change behavior of people? And finally (E2/P4), we’ll see the case studies and questions related to this topic.
Visit Mrunal.org/Ethics for more study material on Ethics.
Eagerly waiting remaining parts and sub parts. Obviously time is less if writing test is also considered as part of preparation.
Sir, Please Upload the Video Lectures of Ethics Part 1 — E1 (All 3 Parts).
You have provided only article on E1 series.
Its my humble request to you provide Video lecture For E1 series as by watching videos Conceptual clarity comes..
Nice……mrunal.. And company
Can anyone please provide link for mrunal’s “world resources” material link ?
Theoretical material is preferred despite of videos …. :)
Thank you so much sir for your great contribution for UPSC IAS exam preparation
Concise and easy to comprehend.thanks sir
100 % as per expectations. Thanks a lot Sir.
Mrunal Can you avail a series of posts of political theory — the most abstract part of the whole syllabus? so please come up with some matter on PS&IR for the rescue of people like me.
hats off sir. U always impress and inspire me
kya baat hai…Mrunal back in his form .. Thanks brother
Best and brisk. One doubt is weather mrunal bai come out with economic survey 15-16 (artcle or vedio).anyone pls answer
Mrunal bhai is Rajnikant of IAS exam. He can do which is beyond our prediction. so wait & watch
After prelim i got sick for 20 days and due to heavy medical dose i could not have studied a single topic, i was scared but now due to these notes it will be easier to cover syllabus comprehensively. Thank u sir for your great efforts.
Mrunal sir please post your humour cum economy and diplomacy articles with related to current issues
Though uploading videos are good, watching videos takes lot of time. so I request Mrunal sir to continue to write the articles based on those ethics lectures.
Writeups => useful for people who are taking the mains exam this year itself =>Senior players.
Videos=> for people who have time => beginners.
I also request to upload the PPTs, if possible.
Pakistan is a parasite attached to india.
SIR, can u provide kavan sirs ppts along with the article series. thank you :D
मृणाल भाई क्या आप नीतिशास्त्र के आगे के power point अपलोड करेंगे।