1. Prologue
  2. MRG1/P1- World Physical Geography Revision
  3. MRG1/P2- Distribution of Natural Resources & India’s Stakes
  4. MRG1/P3-India- Physical Geography, Monsoon
  5. MRG1/P4-Indian Geography: Industrial Locations & Agriculture


  • Myself Sunep Jamir, I’m a B.E. Electronics Engineer. For two years I’ve worked in TCS, Delhi and times I’ve written Mains with Geography Optional subject.
  • In this Revision Lecture series, I’ve be covering the important topics of Geography for Mains General Studies paper-1. There won’t be an ‘organic’ flow in the lecture because I’m only covering selected aspects and unique phenomenon, and moving from one topic to another in a speedy manner.
  • Due to technical limitations, the whiteboard is not captured. But since I’m describing as a draw, it should not bear much problem, so please bear with it.
  • Lecture Videos available under: Youtube.com/user/TheMrunalPatel
  • Powerpoints Available under Mrunal.org/Download within that you go to “Mains Revision Folder”=> Geography

MRG1/P1- World Physical Geography Revision

World Physical Geography

  • New format of Geography -Questions asked since 2013.
  • What is Wilson cycle?
  • Why marine sediments above the basaltic layer goes on increasing with distance from ridge?
  • Why earthquake occur near MOR?
  • Difference between magma of continental (andesites) volcano and oceanic(basalt) volcano?
  • Explanations of  mid- plate volcanoes (eg central sahara / hawaii island)
  • Difference between Mediterranean and andes volcano
  • What are geomorphological effects of earth quake?
  • What is fissure eruption?
  • Why Great Britain and much of western Europe warmer for the latitude?
  • California weather condition – Cold current
  • Heating of lower layers of air
  • Convection currents rise up to outer boundary of troposphere. Why?
  • Temperature gradually increase from the equator towards the pole. Why?
  • Distinguish frontal inversion from other types of inversion?
  • What is isonomals?
  • Blocking effect caused by Coriolis force
  • What is thermal wind?
  • What is jet streams, rossby waves?
  • Types of jet stream
  • The stratosphere, which remains dry and cloudless in the absence of water vapour, develop occasional cirrus clouds. Why?
  • Triggering of Cyclone and anti-cyclone on the surface
  • Southern Oscillation  / EL-NINO
  • Climate of Antarctica
  • Arctic Climate
  • Importance of Antarctica and Environmental changes in it
  • Impacts of Tourism – Environmental impacts, Cultural impact, Way forward

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/9GimwZbg6Hg

MRG1/P2- Distribution of Natural Resources & India’s Stakes


  • India interest in south china sea region: Hydrocarbon resources, the Indian Maritime Doctrine, ONGC Videsh Ltd. And Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) stakes in hydrocarbon exploration blocks with Vietnam
  • India interest in north –Korea: The largest global deposits of minerals and rare earth metals and why necessary for India’s IT industry and electronic majors
  • India interest in Myanmar: Natural resources, governmental aid and Indian private investment
  • India’s interest in Mongolia: Natural resources and India’s priority in it
  • Energy security of India: Oil, uranium and coal deposits, prospect for renewable energy collaboration
  • India’s interest in central asian country: Main oil and gas deposits are in Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan – Enormous hydel resources
  • India’s interest in Canada ( world’s second largest producer of uranium)
  • India’s interest in arctic region: Importance of Arctic region, Northern Sea route, North West route

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/x1Hs8MSS7J8

MRG1/P3-India- Physical Geography, Monsoon

Indian Physical Geography

  • What are different phases in the formation of Himalaya?
  • Why arcuate curve, which is convex to the south?
  • What are the evidences to prove that himalaya are still rising?
  • How does kashmir valley is formed?
  • What is the potential of minerals and mineral oil exploration in Himalaya region?
  • How doons in the west and duars in the east are formed?
  • Monitoring the glaciers of the Himalayas
  • What is the chief characteristics of great plain of north India?
  • What is the evidence for taller height of Aravalli in the geological past?
  • Reasons for the steep-sided, flat-topped hills or cliffs presenting the mesa-like stepped topography facing the Arabian Sea coast?
  • Geological formation of Kutch peninsula?
  • Uniqueness of Cauvery river
  • Inland drainage of India
  • Nature of relation between soils of northern plain and plateau with parent rock
  • What is sedentary soil and transported /azonal soils?
  • Explain the Physiographic  factor influencing the climate of india?
  • Influence of Western jet stream on north western part of india?
  • Explaining the burst of  monsoon
  • Relationship of indian monsoon and tibet plateau
  • Why temperature of west coast are comparatively lower than those prevailing on the east coast?
  • Why heat wave in rajasthan , haryana , punjab . Also in orissa and Andra Pradesh?

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/wXme_Q4vko8

MRG1/P4-Indian Geography: Industrial Locations & Agriculture

Indian Industries & Agriculture

  • Factors influencing the location of industries: Geographical factors – Jute in west bengal  and cotton textile mills in maharashtra and Gujarat reasons- Non –geographical feature – Capital, Government policies ,Industrial inertia
  • Jute textiles and factors for high concentration of jute mills in Hugli basin
  • What are the problem of Indian jute industry?
  • Woollen textiles  – Locations and problems
  • Aluminum smelting
  • Automobile industry – Why near iron and steel producing and near port
  • Fertilizers – phosphatic fertiliser plant and sulphur based
  • Cement industry – Locations and reasons
  • Paper industry – Despite availability of soft wood in himalaya region . Why lack of paper mill there?
  • Industrial regions of India: Mumbai- Pune,  Hugli –West Bangal, Bangalore –Tamilnadu , Gujarat industrial region, Chotanagpur, Vishakhapatnam- Guntur,
  • Gurgaon –Delhi –Meerut, Kollam –Thiruvananthapuram
  • Coalbed methane and it’s Significance
  • Isohyets in India
  • Food crops in India: Rice – Why most important food crop? Wheat – Why wheat cultivation decline east of Varanasi? Maize – It is rain-fed kharif crop in india except in Tamil Nadu . Why?
  • Cash crops: Cotton – Why time of sowing and harvesting differ in different parts of the country? Jute – Reason for pre-monsoon shower; Oilseeds – largest area and production in the world and way forward
  • Plantation crop –  Coffee , Rubber
  • Agriculture: climate change, food security and Urban Agriculture
  • Climate change and Himalaya

Youtube Link: https://youtu.be/33lN-bMp6nE

In next lecture: Nepal Earthquake & other important Geophysical phenomenons; Changes in Critical Geographical features and their impact on flora-fauna.

Visit Mrunal.org/GEOGRAPHY for More material on Geography.