1. Prologue
  2. Longitude, Latitude and international Date line
  3. Rotation, revolution & Eclipse


  • Here starts the Geography series by Dr.Kevin Virani, Faculty SPIPA
  • Videos not available but PDFs of the powerpoints themselves cover all the descriptions
  • Language: English
  • Utility: Geography for UPSC Civil Services General Studies Paper, CAPF, CDS and similar competitive exams.
  • Following topics are covered in the PDF file given at the bottom of this article

Longitude, Latitude and international Date line

  • Why longitude and latitude is needed?
  • What is earth’s grid system?
  • Latitude: definition
  • What are the parallels? five main parallels on the globe
  • Climatic zone of the earth: tropical, temperate and frigid zone
  • Longitude: definition
  • What are the meridians?
  • What is International Date Line (IDL)? How days and date change while crossing international date line?
  • How time is set worldwide according to latitudes?
  • What is the difference between local time and standard time?
  • What is Indian standard time?
  • Map work : Countries passing through Equator
  • Map work: Tropic of Capricorn passes through which countries?
  • Map work : The Tropic of Cancer passes through which countries?
  • Map work : Prime Meridian passing through which Countries and places?
  • Map work : What countries does the Arctic Circle and Antarctica circle pass through?

Geography longitude latitude Kevin Virani

Rotation, revolution & Eclipse

  • Rotation and revolution of the earth
  • What is perihelion and aphelion?
  • What is sidereal day?
  • What is a solar day?
  • Difference between sidereal day and solar day
  • Inclination of axis & its significance
  • What is precession of axis of earth?
  • Effects of rotation and revolution of the earth
  • Effects of the inclination of the axis
  • What is Coriolis effect?
  • Circle of illumination
  • Sumer solstice and winter solstice: how do they occur and its effect
  • vernal/spring equinox and autumnal equinox: how do they occur and its effect
  • Synchronous rotation of the moon – why is only one part of the moon can be seen from the earth?
  • When do full moon and new moon occur?
  • How do solar and lunar eclipse occur – what is Syzygy position
  • Why eclipse does not occur on every full and new moon?

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