- WH/WW2: Interwar Years (1919-39): League of nations
- WH/WW2: Hitler-the Rise of Nazism in Germany
- WH/WW2: Mussolini-the Rise of Fascism in Italy
- WH/WW2: Second World War- Factors and Causes
- WH/WW2: Second World War- Events and Outcomes
Last part of Pratik Nayak’s lecture series on world history upto second world war.
- The outbreak of the First World War made the leaders of the world to establish an international organisation for preventing future wars. The Treaty of Versailles also provided a Covenant for the establishment of an international organisation to maintain peace and security in the world. The founder of this organization was President Woodrow Wilson of USA.
- It was his idea to create a world organization to maintain peace and prevent future wars. President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points underline the creation of a general association of nations. It was Woodrow Wilson who worked hard during Paris negotiations to bring about the birth of the League of Nations
Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/bGL7UMNx7LU
- Adolph Hitler was born in April 1889 in a very humble family in an Austrian village. On account of poverty he could not get proper education. His father wanted to make his son a government employee. But Hitler was very fond of art from his early days. So he went to Vienna at the age of 18 to learn the art of painting and architecture. While he was in Vienna, he happened to witness the behavior of the Jews. He felt that the Jews were the moral enemies of individualism, nationalism and racialism. Further he felt that the Jews were the supporters of the Marxian ideology. Thus his anti- Jews ideas developed at very early age. Hitler was opposed to democracy and believed in the supremacy of the German race
- During the First World War Hitler joined the army and participated in the war. In recognition of his service and bravery shown during the war, he was honoured with the award of the ‘Iron Cross’. He believed that the Jews and the communists were responsible for the defeat of Germany. He therefore undertook a programme to avenge the defeat. He began to work as a spy in Munich. He also started a new party with the cooperation of his friends. National Socialist German Labour Party was launched
Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/be1vVmAjtQg
- Benito Mussolini was the originator of the idea of Fascism. He was born in 1883. Mussolini’s father an ironsmith, was a follower of Socialism. Hence, Mussolini was influenced by the socialistic ideology. He was a school teacher a trade unionist and a journalist. He was imprisoned in 1908 for revolutionary ideas. In 1912 he started the editing of Avanthi, a socialist journal. He was a bitter opponent of the Church.
- Mussolini, who was a staunch opponent of Bolshevism, decided to start a new party to fight Communism. In march 1919 the Fascist Party was established under his leadership. The members wore black shirts and were equipped with arms. The party had its own flag. The members were well disciplined and Mussolini was their chief commander
Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/ns-6gOlS9kQ
- The First World War came to an end in 1918 and the Paris Peace conference was held in 1919. Many treaties including the Treaty of Versailles were signed in the conference. One of the important features of this conference was that only the victorious nations alone were invited. The conference turned out to be a meeting of the victors to share the spoils of the war. The defeated countries were badly treated.
- They also discussed about the establishment of permanent peace in the world. In order to solve mutual problems among the nations, under the initiative of the U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, the League of Nations had been established. But the League failed to maintain the expected international peace. This ultimately led to the rise of dictatorships in Germany, Italy and Japan. The formation of Rome, Berlin, Tokyo Axis led to the Second World War.
Youtube Link: http://youtu.be/MWsHcq6-ToA
- Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Great Britain declared war against Germany on September 3. Second World War started
- In April 1940, Germany captured Denmark and Norway. In May 1940, Holland and Belgium were conquered. Germany attacked France and captured it in June 1940. Italy fought against the British forces in North Africa. Mussolini attacked Greece and captured it with German support. Yugoslavia and Crete were occupied by the Germans. After the fall of France, Britain was left alone. Hence, Hitler wanted to attack England by air.
- There was continuous air force attack on Britain. But the dynamic leadership of Prime Minister Churchill saved England. Germany could not conquer Britain. Germany made a mistake of invading the Soviet Union, despite a non-aggression pact. One of the important battles was the Battle of Stalingrad. For five months the battle went on. It involved 2 million soldiers, 2000 tanks and 2000 aero-planes. The invading German army was driven back. In February1943, about 90,000 German soldiers surrendered. This was a turning point of the war.
- In December 1941, Japan attacked the Pearl Harbour. This tragedy dragged the U.S.A. into the war. General MacArther was made the supreme commander of the Pacific region. Lord Mountbatten, the Commander of South East Asia drove the Japanese from Burma.
- In 1944 the Allied forces entered into France and expelled the German army from France. After that the Allied forces attacked Germany from the Southwest. Russia invaded Germany from the East. On 2 May 1945 Russian army entered Berlin. Hitler committed suicide. Germany surrendered.
- Even after the surrender of Germany, Japan continued the war. USA dropped two atom bombs on Hiroshima (6th August) and on Nagasaki (9th August). Following this Japan surrendered on 14th August 1945.