[Rights Issue] Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011: Purpose, Benefits, Features, Deprivation index

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Unacademy Plus Mrunal Economy for Prelims and Mains UPSC!
  1. SECC-2011: WHY needed?
  2. Census Difference: Regular vs SECC
  3. Confidential?
  4. BPL: SECC vs Planning Commission
  5. Poverty: UN Definition
  6. Poverty Line: India
  7. Tendulkar
  8. SECC-Players involved
  9. Procedure
  10. Data collection
  11. SECC: Methodology
  12. 7 deprivation indicators:
  13. Followup
  14. SECC Advantages?
  15. SECC: Criticism
  16. Mock Questions

SECC-2011: WHY needed?

#1: Beneficiary identification

  • Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011 ranks the households based on their socio-economic status.(=a database is created)
  • State Governments can use this database to prepare the list of families living below poverty line (BPL).
  • (Combined with UID) This database can be utilized for identification of beneficiaries for various socio-economic welfare schemes.

#2: Policy Making

  • SECC census database will provide authentic information to policy makers about caste-wise population breakup in the country (e.g. socio-economic, educational status of a particular caste.)
  • Based on that, Government can evaluate the performance of its past schemes/policies and update them accordingly.

Census Difference: Regular vs SECC

Census= A periodic count of the population.

Regular population census 2011 Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011
Apex organization
  • Census Commissioner (Home Ministry)
  • Rurul Development ministry + Planning Commission.
  • Conducted every 10 year.
  • Last census was done in 2011 and data collection is finished.
  • First time started in 2011 itself.
  • But as of March 2013, Manipur, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Lakshadweep are yet to finish the data collection for SECC census 2011.
Act? carried under census of India act 1948 Not carried under that Act.
Personal Data confidential yes No. (more explained below).
Purpose? Provide general demographic information: age, gender, religion, occupation, migration etc. help preparing BPL list and identifying beneficiaries for welfare schemes.
Motto? Our Census, Our future Our Census, UPSC aspirant’s tension


  • The regular Population Census is Carried out under Census Act, 1948.
  • According to this Act, Government  must keep individual’s personal information confidential.
  • For example religion of Sonia/Rahul Gandhi.
  • Besides aim of regular Population Census = provide overview, it is not concerned with any particular individual / household.
  • In short personal data given in Population census =confidential.
  • Now speaking of Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC).
  • All the personal information given in SECC, will be put in public display (in Gram Sabha) except caste/tribe/religion details.
  • State Governments will also use this personal data to identify beneficiaries for food/pension /other welfare schemes and for preparing BPL list.
  • In future Data could be used to update individual’s detail in NPR, UID.
  • In short, the data given in SECC census= NOT confidential. That’s why, Government is not carrying out SECC under Census Act, 1948.

BPL: SECC vs Planning Commission

Planning Commission SECC
How many BPL? (=number) Which individual is BPL? (=name)
for example, the Planning Commission estimate for a State could be that say 55% of the rural population and say 30%of the urban population is living below the poverty line. SECC, 2011 will enable that particular State to identify the households who comprise this 55% and 30% respectively.

Poverty: UN Definition

According to United Nations (UN) poverty means following

  • Fundamentally, poverty is a denial of choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
  • It means lack of basic capacity to participate effectively in society.
  • It means not having enough to feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having access to credit.
  • It means insecurity, powerlessness and exclusion of individuals, households and communities.
  • It means susceptibility to violence, and
  • it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation

Poverty Line: India

  • Poverty line helps identifying the weaker, vulnerable sections of the society who cannot meet even their minimum food requirement [measured in terms of calorific intake].
  • This line also decides the beneficiaries for  government programs like Targeted PDS, Indira Awas Yojana, food security entitlements etc., which depend on poverty line standards and hence gets huge public attention.
  • But Every time we try to fix this line there is a conflict of interest between the people and state because:
  • Ruling party (@union and State level) would want to show that every year % percentage of population living below poverty is decreasing otherwise opposition parties will start shouting “poverty is increasing under this regime.”
  • Similarly international arena, Government would not want to make India look like a failed state in terms of poverty removal.
  • So Governments always want less people fall Below poverty line)


Last year a big controversy erupted when the planning commission said, “we’ve accepted the Tendulkar Committee report, according to which poverty line is following:

Area Person earning lessthan Rs. ** per day
Urban 32
Rural 26

But due to public uproar later Government  and planning Commission had to clarify that we are is not going to use this line to identify beneficiaries for government programs and only the figures given by SECC to be considered.

SECC-Players involved

  1. Ministry of Rural Development
  2. Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation
  3. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India
  4. State Governments
  5. Each Collector/District Magistrate
  6. Enumerators + Data entry operators.


  • For SECC Census, Union Government will provide cash + technical help.
  • State Government machinery will do the data collection.
  • District magistrate/collector will be responsible for overall SECC census in his district.
  • State Government will appoint Enumerators to visit houses and do the survey.
  • The primary school teachers will not be used as Enumerators for this purpose due to the ban imposed by the Right to Education Act, 2009.

Data collection

  • Two men team: 1 Enumerator (to ask questions) + 1 Data Entry operator (to record data in Tablet PC)
  • They visit households.
  • They will also reach out to homeless populations (eg. people living in railway stations, roadsides etc)

SECC: Methodology

It uses separate methodology for surveying rural and urban households.

Area Methodology basedon ** Committee
Rural Saxena
Urban Hashim

now let’s check the methodology adopted for surveying rural households : it is a three part approach

SECC for Rural Households

  1. Automatically Exclude some households (based on income/assets)
  2. Automatically Include some household
  3. For the remaining houses: rank them based on seven deprivation factors.

#1: Automatically Excluded

If a household own any of these items: they’ll be excluded. (list not exhaustive)

  1. Vehicle
  2. Kisan Credit Card with credit limit of Rs. 50k and above
  3. Any member is Government employee
  4. Any member is earning more than Rs.10k per month.
  5. Paying income tax
  6. Paying professional tax
  7. House has pucca walls and roof + Three or more rooms
  8. Own a refrigerator
  9. Own Landline phone
  10. Owns irrigated land above a limit.

#2: Automatically Included

household with any of the following will be included automatically:

  1. Households without shelter
  2. Destitute/ living on alms
  3. Manual scavengers
  4. Legally released bonded labourers
  5. Primitive tribal groups

What is Primitive tribal groups (PTG)?

There are the poorest of poor amongst the Scheduled Tribes (STs).  They’re identified based on three parameters

  1. They use pre-agricultural level of technology for farming.
  2. Very low level of literacy
  3. They population is either Declining or stagnant.

#3: Deprivation indicator

So far we know that

  1. SECC-2011 census aims to rank households.
  2. It automatically includes/excludes certain households (as seen above)
  3. Now for the remaining households (which are not automatically included or excluded) the census will rank them based on 7 Deprivation Indicators.

7 deprivation indicators:

  1. Households with only one room, kucha walls and kucha roof
  2. No adult member between the ages of 16 and 59
  3. Female headed households with no adult male member between 16 and 59
  4. Households with disabled member and no able bodied adult member
  5. SC/ST household
  6. Households with no literate adult above 25 years
  7. Landless households deriving a major part of their income from manual casual labour

Households with the highest deprivation score will

  1. Be first included in the BPL list.
  2. Be first given benefit of Government welfare schemes.

ok so ^this was the methodology for doing SECC census in Rural area. Now speaking of methodology for Urban areas.

SECC urban area

It is a similar a three stage process to identify the urban poor – automatic exclusion, automatic inclusion and a scoring index. A family stands to be automatically excluded if it has either a four room house or possess any one of the asset (four wheeler, AC set, laptop) or any three of the following assets (fridge, landline phone, washing machine or a two wheeler.)


  • Once the survey is complete in all States and union territories, the database will be given to Abhijit Sen Committee.
  • Abhijit Sen Committee will analyse this data and come up with the exclusion criteria for Government welfare schemes. (particularly food security and pension) (e.g. if you earn xx rupees and own xx assets then you are not eligible for xyz welfare schemes.)
  • Earlier Mihir Shah task force has said whoever is covered under food security, should automatically be covered under pension benefit (National Social assistant program)
  • So at the moment, immediate plan of Government is SECC-2011–>> use data to identify beneficiaries for Food + Pension.

SECC Advantages?

#1: Paperless

Polity Census SECC tablet

  • Survey is carried by 2 men team (Enumerator + Data entry operator).
  • Data entry operator is given a tablet PC.
  • When Data entry operator is entering data in the table PC, he’ll also see the scanned form of National Population register (NPR)= it means he can cross check the information provided by given household.This will drastically reduce data entry errors and enumerator discretion.

Polity Census SECC tablet Scanned NPR

#2: Transparent

  • Once data collection is complete, it’ll be given to Gram Sabha and put on public display.
  • This will ensure that there is no misreporting.
  • At the higher stage, data will be cross verified at block and district level officers.

SECC: Criticism

  1. In the Table PC, Under sex column: only male/ female= Transgender not included.
  2. Information of caste details may be misused, for more casteist politics especially when next general election is coming soon.
  3. Basic amenities like a telephone connection, motorized two wheeler possession is considered a luxury.
  4. For Urban area, Any household that has laptop =excluded.
  5. But in Tamilnadu, many poor families are given free laptop, TV etc by State Government. Similarly UP Government is also planning to give free laptops. So poor people are afraid they’ll loose rank in deprivation index/BPL list.  (although now Government is considering dropping laptop from the exclusion list.)
  6. SECC’s deprivation parameters donot consider food consumption/calorie intake. So the whole Malnutrition angle (of women and children) is missing. Similarly expenditure on health is also not considered.

Mock Questions

Q1. Which of the following ministries are involved in Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011?

  1. Ministry of social justice and empowerment
  2. Ministry of Rural development
  3. Ministry of minority affairs
  4. Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation


  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Only 2 and 3
  4. 2 and 4

Q2. Correct statements about Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011?

  1. Motto is “Our Census, Our future”
  2. It is being carried under Census of India act 1948.


  1. Only 1
  2. Only 2
  3. Only both
  4. None.


  1. True social empowerment cannot be achieved by censuses and schemes. Comment.
  2. Discuss the role of state in Social empowerment.
  1. Write a note on Socio-Economic Caste Census of 2011.


  1. Poverty and Deprivation
  2. Caste Politics


  1. If you were given the task of designing a new poverty line, how will you do it?
  2. What do you understand by the term deprivation?
  3. If we’ve to measure deprivation objectively, what parameters should be looked into? Do you think the 7 parameters adopted in SECC census are sufficient?
  4. Who or what is responsible for large-scale deprivation in India?


  1. Major Inputs from Mr. Manikandan Soundararajan
  2. http://rural.nic.in/sites/BPL-census-2011.asp
  3. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=93133
Indian History Freedom Struggle Pratik Nayak

79 Comments on “[Rights Issue] Socio Economic Caste Census (SECC) 2011: Purpose, Benefits, Features, Deprivation index”

  1. sorry its d,d

  2. 1-d
    make correcion regarding 2nd point of SECC METHODOLGY,it shud be “automatically included” in place of “automatically excluded”

    1. My socioeconomic and caste census mis how to inquire

  3. 1-d

    i want 2 clarify 1thng….if one is eligible 4 both civils n ifos but he applies for ifos,that will be counted as a attempt in ifos only i believe?i hope it will not add to the civils attempt,though being the same prelim xam…..plz clarify

    1. yhi hai ias attempts r different n ifos are diff.

  4. After automatically excluded you have mentioned again automatically excluded instead of automatically included…please correct

  5. Is Min of Home Affairs involved in Socio-Economic Caste Census 2011 ?

    1. No. They don’t have much business with the results of SECC.

    2. Though Census Commissioner under Home affairs will provide technical expertise + acts as advisory board

      1. thanks sir.
        i had this doubt bcoz office of registrar general and (ex officio) cenus commissioner comes under MHA.

        1. Also Census Comissioner works under framework of “Census act 1948” which doesn’t cater to SECC.

          1. comrade, thanks for active participation in clearing doubt.

  6. hi mrunal,
    in the intro, it is said that govt wants the poverty line to b higher and the people want it to be lower, is it not the other way?, coz when u increase the bar, more people will come under it and when u decrease it less will come under it. Kindly clarify, thank u

    1. if more people are there in bpl govt. also should have to spend more money as the people come in ambit of the schemes increases.

  7. Very nice work. Hey Mrunal, time is passing by very quickly, please suggest the book iist, we all are eagerly waiting for it. please do it as soon as possible. thank you.

    1. for what u want book list?

  8. i have a query Mrunal….is there any possibility of including inflation indexed poverty line?Because in this highly volatile socio economic scenario where prices keep increasing everyday how cum the poverty line remain fixed?and another thing the pensions for old age and widows haven’t rose for many years for which agitation is continuing to increase it upto Rs2000(it it gets fixed at Rs 500 that would be kind gesture”punn intended”)anyways the welfare schemes remains fixed and very rarely do we see a rise in them,is there anything brewing or criticism of this sort?

    1. I am not sure but regarding your point of placing inflation indexed poverty line is kind of impossible, it may be because in case of hyperinflation/deflation, which speaking of are a form of inflation, the general price level within the economy increases as the state looses its currency value, leading to heavy imbalance of demand and supply situation on the other hand Deflation tends to reduce aggregate demand and economic activity. If people expect prices to fall, people delay consumption and investment leading to lower output, and higher unemployment.. there had already been reported cases as of germany in 1923 when bank notes lost their value to such an extent that they were used to cook food rather than fuel, people preferred barter system than to trade on currency, the 1920’s great depression is also a example. in the near present scenario when we look at economic condition of zimbabwe the hyperinflation has brought down the country to widespread poverty and nearly 80% unemployment.
      these two above situation though not sufficient to suffice my argument but can be taken as a control group for my argument of not bringing inflation indexed poverty line in picture, may be this might be the reason PC is always taking calorific value as its poverty index.
      Please fill me with your argument if any, it will be generous of you to update. By the way very nyc topic.

      1. Ya,i am aware of the fact that the different phases of inflation would make it a cumbersome and a difficult process if the inflation indexed line is introduced,even i have a doubt regarding this sort of a proposition but my idea was to bring about different conflicting issues that might help us introspect better because i am no expert in economy intricacies(which is why i might miss several nuances)…………..having said all this if we don’t resort to such an idea there might be counter points for this but one thing doesn’t it make all the welfare programmes half hearted just an eye wash where the real scenario is so much different(for eg tendulkar commiitee’s repor),if there can be inflation indexed bonds,govt might think of such a proposition or some other solution because prices of commodities can rise each day……but does our salary increase each day?or for that we say sir you are not paying diligently so we will not deliver such and such service(though officials resort o other methods which is ok for them)if it really cares,Again we musn’t forget the function of planning commission though again anomalies persist on those front also.I would like to cite an eg from Cornwallis episode……when he arrived in India he saw a lot corruption the officials resorted to backhandedly so he incresed their salaries which was surely a burden to the comapny’s coffers but it saved the company from huge losses.

        1. I agree to your argument and would like to raise one, Govt. cannot place Inflation Indexed Bonds and Inflation Indexed Poverty line in same basket. The former index is on a very small scale compared to latter and rather Bonds are always available at some cost, the institutions will receive the benefit by investing the bond amount and then has to be returned after a period, but in case of latter its a black hole and it will be an obligation to Govt to meet it every fiscal year, suppose India faces some external aggression/recession etc. it is well imaginable that major portion of finance will be drained in meeting the current need, its always obvious that after having been faced such aggression no economy can sustain as balanced economy for a long period of time, again along with this if govt has to meet their BPL demands how will they overcome the economic slowdown. All major finance will be drained off, you can see it will become a diminishing cycle of its own kind.
          Speaking of cost of living/diligent pay, inflation grabs a credit of maintaining the niche of society to some extent, no one in this universe is qualified enough to solve this to an extent that every entity is satisfied in itself. Lord Cornwallis faced the rampant corruption in “Company Officials” He strengthened the “Official Pockets” only and only (apart from administrative reforms and foreign policy) and that i dont think might have even crossed the figure of 2 lacks in whole.
          you can see the Structure of GOI as a state is so large(2nd in terms of population in world) that it cannot meet the pocket needs of every individual but yes it can and must meet the calorific need of vulnerable sections. Moreover for the same reason RBI although an autonomous institution, also its responsible for credit and monetary policy of the country, it never looses its grip on financial institutions.
          I agree GOI should take necessary steps regarding vulnerable society and for that more jobs should be created and rather beneficiaries(as SECC is working) should be identified and benefited, why providing monetary benefit directly without engaging the manual force and corrupting their potential.
          I Appreciate your argument once again.

        2. The vital Doses to solve a comman man’s problem I believe is-

          1. Control the population, Make programs which will enable people to gain in to the benefits of family Planning & will help in nation to get destressed.

          2. Education- Ensuring a Common Minimum Programme like K-12 in USA to ensure that Kid right from enrolling in class to passing has gained in a requisite learning. The proper feedback mechanism & course reviewing mechanism to ensure that India stands on tracks with the world( NCERT has to come in). Ensuring that number & amount of absentia from school of teachers & students are minimum. For that importance of educations needs to be spread through SHG & NGO till the grassroots.It is checks & balances mechanism that ensures compliance so like in this case also, It should be ensured that Performance review mechanism is placed in order to check that system is delivering.Sports & Personality Tracking to check the best in kids needs to be conceived,and to do that staff needs to be admitted with procedures in place governed HRD Ministry.Adult Education Program need to be stressed in.The proper checks & balances in place only wuill ebnsure that whatver a student was supposed to learn in one tenure HAS LEARNT & if there are any gaps then discussing it & filling it. the system definitely needs an overhaul.

          3. Health- It is very necessary that children should have fine health( mental & Physical) to ensure growth, So in BPL Mid day meal which is already implemented needs to check a count of daily nutrition intake of Children.The Compliance should be done in Officer in Charge with Daly/weekly/Monthly reports who feeds this data into Online system in Place tracked by the cells in HRD.

          Yearly reviews need to be done vis-a-vis actual & achieved & understanding the gaps.

          4.Harnessing the Resources in Benefit of nation- The scams also have gained a diversity now they are ranging from Coal to Telecom. India is blessed Nation when it comes to resources but it needs to be ensured that auction of resources needs to be done for necessary cash generation for Union Treasury & not for any personal Benefit. each & every region of India is blessed with one or other reserve, It needs to be esnured that competitive bidding takes place transparently to esnure teh rqeuired cash generation which wil then be routed to teh above policy of health, HRD & Family Planning The three important ingredients of Efficient Econommy.

          5. Job generation- HRD ministry needs to make sure that sufficient jobs for skilled & semi skilled, Highly Skilled & unksilled workers are getting generated & for that the tie ups with Corporate Minsitry needs to be required so that every eye should be placed on any company operating on lands of India that is Bharat for sufficient Job generation in lieu with teh total people waiting in Job gaining Pool. the necessary reports need to be placed into online system to keep a track record & transparency with compliance.The Heirarchy of people involved in machinery to execute the tasks may be debated,discussed & agreed.The corporate minsitry needs to keep a vital eye to ensure that employers are not overstepping the authority & rights f Individual working is secured.

          6. Black Money – Amouting to 1.3 trillion dollar in Swiss needs to be brough back to India for boosting our economy.
          It is then I think that we will have a brighter picture of India Shining.

    2. @risha & KK,

      inflation indexed poverty line is not that difficult, it could be done. there are many ideas. one idea could be fixing the benchmark at current inflation rate (for initial value, assign this task to some logical person/committee rather than tendulakar) and keep on revising it over a period of time based on inflation/deflation, that also could be done retrospectively.

      but need of the hour for the govt is to identify real beneficiaries to avoid leakage. And here is the main problem and focus for the govt, that is why govt is putting lot of time, money etc. in UID, SECC etc. Linking inflation with poverty line is second level problem which will come up when the basic problems are eliminated.

      1. Hi,very good discussion.Government is trying to reduce poverty but it doesn’t find the root cause of this evil.Let me explain. Every year thousands of pushed below the poverty line because they have to spend more than 55% of their earning on health care. if we have a better healthcare system then we can easily reduce the poverty. so my point government must concentrate on this sector rather creating new schemes every six months.

      2. I just want to add my views regarding the discussion of Inflation Indexed poverty line.. Poverty is not an eminent phenomenon(at least so is intended) for a county.. Every country strive to reduce it or eliminate it.. Instead of raising the mark for poverty line our Gov. seeks to construct such goods & services that help the masses to raise itself from poverty.. So Inflation indexed povert line may fulfill the short term goal for the BPL family but it is causing it to languish in actual terms as Gov is keeping itself aloof from its basic duties of providing opportunities & choices to the people.
        For Eg. if a SHG is formed in a village from a capital of 30k for the BPL families in which adequate training would be provided before initiation of production activity,then it would be helping those families in the long run. So the income provided or facilities given by this program would be in addition to the already available facilities (lyk PDS,etc). And so with proper savings slowly those families would come out of their poverty.
        So we have to see the whole scenario that Gov is also trying to raise the infrastructure in addition to helping BPL families finacially so instead of raising the money value of help from Gov now and then(which would of course damage the BOP of nation and cause financial blow to the economy),the grand design is to raise overall economic scenario that would itself solve this problem.

        1. Amit, good perspective. You know what the issue is with that? The govt. never bothered to explain it to masses. In a heavily politicized and democratic country like ours, awareness and communication is everything.

          1. the problem is not in conceive of policy, it is in implementation which we term as policy paralysis, any policy conceived right from MGNREGA to Sarva Shiksha Abiyan is meant to empower people to make them productive & happy, But what it ends up with we know-a scam, a failure, siphoning off the public money & looting the exhequer, It is high time that we require a highly tranparent system of distribution to ensure that the requisite is delivered to beneficiary & for that making system to go online will be an effective step.Seamless Integration between the top to bottom is rqeuired just like the one we have it China & US. I am all eyes on Direct Cash Transfer, one of the biggest experiments to keep away the touts hands.

  9. Very Informative,
    Thank You very Much, Mrunal.

  10. Sir i like this information.

  11. hi sir, i am not able to add a comment on forum plz check it.

  12. what is leverage buy out?&management buy out?

  13. sir u are great.u are god for us

  14. SECC-2011: WHY needed?

    1. Sravanti , consider you are the new govt of India. You have 1000 rupees and 100 people under you. You want to know on whom to distribute the money. So you conduct a census and find out who is in need of the money and then you give them money.

  15. thanks mrunal.

  16. Dude I thought that the score of 0 to 7 based on set of indicators is applicable only to rural SECC (Saxena committee). While both will use exclusion/inclusion criteria, the Hashim committee recommended inclusion criteria based on three indicators occupational vulnerability, social vulnerability and place of residence. May be the 7 are expanded versions of these three.

  17. Compulsory English for Civil and Judicial Services 2nd Edition is released…
    Should i buy it or Objective English by Arihant …

  18. Mrunal Sir , can you provide the readers of this blog the solved/unsolved optional prelims papers of history , geography and political science for the period of 1995-2010… I shall be very greatful to you .. I have tried on flipkart but it had not worked …thanks and regards

  19. I belong to non economic background. I tried to learn it various times but the language seems to be alien to me when read the books. Even I used to ignore your economic posts. Once I started looking into it I felt like yes I can do it. Thanks for making my confidence high.

    1. Ramesh Singh + usage of google for economic terms = you will become real good. Same thing here, non economic background, learned that way :-)

  20. hi mrunal sir
    i had graduated frm a state university
    my Graduation percentage is 70.5%.
    In UPSC Apllication graduation percentage is asked, but there in no option to indicate decimal value.
    so what can i do???
    and second Is it Mandatory to have Signature with BLACK PEN on white background.
    Please do Reply……Thanking in Advance.

    1. Grad percentage = 70 if it is less than 70.51. If more than 70.51, then grad percentage = 71.
      It is mandatory as per the “guidelines given in UPSC website” to have a photo of sign with black pen on white paper.

  21. Sir as u know that upsc has changed pattern of ICS for mains. These changes are above our mind. Seeing the syllabus of new pattern how to prepare for mains is out of mind because we need complete material that is not available to us. Now there are four papers for GS. Please guide us how to cover all the topic regarding new GS pattern.

    1. Gone are those days when you could rely on text books. The scope of qualifying through mere studies has shrunk considerably now. The only option available is to learn. Learning as we believe doesn’t come through studies alone. One can learn through observation, communication, films, conversation and so on. Books are there to provide an orientation and nothing else. In this newly introduced pattern one needs mentoring so that one’s individual qualities and capabilities can be improved further along with their limitations and mistakes being pointed out regularly…

  22. well explained,easily understandable.

  23. sir i hv doubt frm rs agarwal….plz solve it by up un method. i tried solving it by this method,but not getting d answer

    statements: all dogs are windows. all bottles are windows. all cars are bottles
    conclusions: 1)all cars are window 2)some cars are dolls. 3) some windows are cars

    ans: 1) only 1 and 2 follow
    2) only 2 and 3 follow
    3) only 1 and 3 follow
    4) all follow
    5) non of these.

    1. I think answer’ll b only 2 n 3 follow becoz it cant be assumed from given statements dat all cars r window n also nt mentioned specifically.if all cars r window then no possiblity of dolls n no use of addition of “some” with cars.hope i make u understand in best possible manner.

    2. ans= 3) 1 and 3 follows

    3. 1 and 3 are right. The Venn-diagram should help in solving the Q buddy :-)

  24. only 1 n 3 follows.

  25. sir please read following lines:–

    But Every time we try to fix this line there is a conflict of interest between the people and state because:
    Ruling party (@union and State level) would want to show that every year % percentage of population living below poverty is decreasing otherwise opposition parties will start shouting “poverty is increasing under this regime.”
    Similarly international arena, Government would not want to make India look like a failed state in terms of poverty removal.
    So Governments always want poverty line to be


    (that way less people fall Below poverty line)
    On the other hand, people want poverty line to be


    (so more of them can get food/subsidy benefits.)
    So a tug of war always happens in pushing this poverty line up or down.

    if the PL is higher then more ppl come under BPL
    & if PL is lower = less ppl @BPL

    please clarify my dough if I wrong or right
    thanks in advance

    1. Indrajeet, the lines mentioned by Mrunal are wrong.

      If Poverty line is low, less people come under Poverty and if PL is high, more people come under poverty. We can infer that Govt wants to show a lower poverty line and people want a higher poverty line.

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