- [Act 1] Health
- [Act 2] Women and Children
Economic Survey Chapter 13, Total five subparts:
- UNDP’s Human Development report 2014, poverty [coming soon]
- Healthcare, women and children [you’re here]
- Demographic Dividend: Education, youth, Skill Development [done]
- Minorities, SC, ST, PH, Elderly, Sports & Defense [done]
- Rural and urban infrastructure [done]
- As such I’ve taken data from Economic Survey 2013, page 236, 237 and 247.
- But at certain places, National Health Profile 2013 (NHP) has provided new data, therefore, I’ve included it with (*) mark.
|Total Fertility Rate:
|Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)
|Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
|Child Mortality Rate
|Birth Rate per 1000 mid-year population
|Death rate per 1000 mid-year population
|Decedal Population Growth Rate
|Population Density per sq.km
||All India 382*|
||All India: 943/1000|
|Child Sex Ratio (0-6 age group)||914, constantly declining since ‘71|
|Life Expectancy @Birth||
Q. Write a note on the salient features of National Population policy (100 words)
|MMR||178||below 100 per 1 lakh live birth|
|IMR||42||30 per 1000 live births|
|TFR||2.4||2.1 (replacement level)|
- promote girl marriage after age of 20
- Compulsory registration of birth and death.
- 80% institutionalized deliveries, to reduce MMR
- Compulsory school education, reduce dropout rate
- Achieve Stable population by 2045
- promote sterilization, family planning, 2-children norm, safe abortions, HIV control, universal immunization
- BPL couple undergoing sterilization will get free health insurance.
- Central bureau of Health intelligence under Health Ministry has prepared it.
- This comprehensive database helps in Policy making, tracking Millennium development goal (MDG) targets
- Overall, just statistical data, hardly any recommendations. Therefore, not much important for exam. (except those rankings given in above table)
- Here are some gem “statistics”: 125 Cr. People but barely 9 lakh Allopathic doctors and 6 lakh beds, highest Swine flu cases in Delhi but most deaths reported in Gujarat, 21% rise in Cancer in Next 6 years and so on. You can see – not much exam worthiness.
Previous schemes, acts available at- wp.me/p2tsJl-1Ec it’s a mile long list, cost:benefit bad hence not dwelling in to them. Only focusing on topics discussed in survey / budget.
|National Urban Health Mission||National Rural Health mission|
|Cities above 50,000 population||upto 50,000 population villages, town|
These missions provide infrastructure, services, drugs and human resources for public health.
Reproductive and Child health (RCH)
|Janani Suraksha||Janani Shishu Suraksha|
||Free drugs, Diet, Medical checkup, transport to home, and caesarean deliveries.|
Mother and child tracking system (MCTS)
- Under national E-governance plan (NeGP)
- Government keeps maintains data of the mothers with their addresses, telephone numbers, etc.
- This contact database is used for ante-natal (before birth) and post-natal (immediately after birth) check-up of mothers and vaccination for their babies.
- By Women and Child Development Ministry under “National mission for empowerment of women.” (NOT by Health Ministry)
- To compensate mothers for wage-loss during childbirth and childcare.
- Available to all women for first two children.
- Not available to women who get paid maternity leave.
- Conditional cash transfer via Direct benefit transfer (DBT)
- Condition: she should get pre-natal checkups, get vaccination for infant, attend counseling session etc.
PM Modi’s Health reforms:
He listed 17 point agenda, out of which 3 points for health:
- A district health knowledge institute at every district hospital.
- B.Sc course in community health (3 years)
- Ashok: male community health worker, on the lines of the female ASHA workers.
Q. What is the role of ASHA worker in community healthcare system of India? (100 words)
- Under National Rural health mission (2005)
- Every village/large habitat has a female Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) – chosen by and accountable to the Panchayat.
- She acts as the interface between the community and the public health system and schemes related to health, nutrition and hygiene- including toilets under Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan.
- She also generates awareness about female infanticide, family planning, STD/HIV
- She carries a Drug Kit containing generic AYUSH, allopathic drugs for common ailments, Rehydration Therapy (ORS), Iron Folic Acid Tablet(IFA), chloroquine, pills, condoms etc.
- She receives performance based incentive depending on number of children immunized under Polio vaccination drive, No. of institutionalized deliveries under Janani Suraksha Yojana, no. of pregnant no. of TB patients covered under DOTS therapy and so on.
- Budget 2014 gave additional funding give to National rural drinking water program.
- It’ll provide safe drinking water to 20,000 habitations affected with arsenic, fluoride, heavy/ toxic elements, pesticides/ fertilizers
- Via community water purification plants
- Time limit? next 3 years
|Health 4 ALL||the two key initiatives
|Elderly||National Institutes of Ageing will be set up in Delhi and Chennai|
|Food and drug||Additional money for modernizing state labs for checking drugs and foods.|
|Rural health research||15 new institutes will be setup|
|AIIMS||4 new AIIMS will be setup under PMSSY|
- Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY)
- Two components:
- setup new AIIMs institutes
- upgrade existing Government medical colleges.
|6 Already finished||4 new Proposed in budget 2014|
Additionally, Budget 2014 promised to setup 12 new Government medical colleges. (Present number is 58).
- Existing Schemes have created Good infrastructure but at bad locations- without good facilities for transport, communication and electricity.
- There is already brain drain, Staff Shortage, women doctors-nurses reluctant to serve in rural areas because of safety issues.
- Government schemes only focus on “inputs” e.g. how much money allotted, how many beds, health centers built?
- But they donot focus on “reduction” – how many cases of malaria, diarrhea, child mortality reduced?
- Therefore, survey recommends a shift in public health policy and budget Expenditure. Prime focus should be on hygiene and malnutrition- it’ll automatically reduce the disease incidence.
As such infinite topic, but I’m only covering the terms, schemes, policies, acts given in economic survey / budget.
|1974||National Policy for children|
|2003||National Charter for Children|
|2013||National Policy for children|
Q. Write a note on the salient features of National Policy for children (100 words)
- Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) will be the nodal agency for all child related schemes.
- Child definition includes all aged below 18 years
- National plan > State > District > Local level plans will be prepared.
- will setup Action groups to monitor implementation of this policy
- Priority: Survival, health, nutrition, development, education, protection and participation of Children.
- Then you can cite a few schemes and statistics to reach 100 word limit.
Sidenote: National policy for empowerment of Women – was made in 2001. Hence not going into its details. Compared to that Children policy (2013) and Youth policy (2014) more important since they were made in recent times.
>70% Indian population consists of women and children. Government has taken following initiatives to protect them:
- 2005: started Gender budgeting started. It received ~6% of total budget outlet.
- 2012: Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POSCO) Act
- Committee under Dr. Pam Rajput for “status of women in India” (2 years deadline)
- Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act
- Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013, also known as Anti-rape law.
Q. Write a note on the salient features of Prevention of Sexual Harassment Act 2013 (200 words)
- Based on definition of Vishakha judgment, and even covered areas/aspects not under Vishakha judgment.
- Protects all women employee, of all ages, organized or unorganised sectors, public or private, permanent or dailywage.
- Even covers women clients, customers and domestic workers as well.
- Even protects against harassment in non-office places such as transportation, sports complex, nursing home, educational institution etc.
|Internal complaints Committee||Local complaints Committee|
|Committee will have 4 members.||5|
|chairman: senior woman employee||Chairman: woman with experience of social work, fighting for women’s causes.|
- Conciliation permitted, only if victim requests.
- Employer has to setup ICC Committee, arrange workshops etc. Rs.50000 fine for employer, if he violates any rules under this act.
|victim can file complaint in||3 months|
|ICC/LCC Committee has to finish inquiry within||2 months|
|Employer/district officer has to take action based on Committee report within||2 months|
Q. Write a note on the salient features of Criminal Law (Amendment) Act 2013 (100 words)
Based on the report of Justice JS Verma Committee after Delhi Gangrape in December 2012.
Salient feature are following:
- It amends IPC, CrPC, POSCO and Indian Evidence Act to increase punishment for sexual offenders.
- Adds new sexual offenses under IPC: acid attack, public disrobing of women, voyeurism and stalking.
- Stalking and voyeurism: non-bailable, if caught second time.
- Acid attack: upto 10 years jail time.
- Rape- jail time no less than 20 years, and can be extended to life sentence.
- Death sentence for serial rapists.
Q. Write a note on salient features of National mission for empowerment of women (100 words)
- under ministry of women and child Development (2010)
- also known as “Mission Poorna Shakti”
- Provides Single window service and convergence for all women specific schemes across various central ministries and departments.
- Provides funding for women skill Development, micro-credit and research.
- Focus areas:
- Prevent child marriage, domestic violence, sexual abuse, prostitution.
- Provide education, financial inclusion, health-sanitation services, vocational training and better representation in Panchayati raj institutions.
- Recall that Woman & Child Development ministry implements “Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog” as part of this national mission.
Q. Write a short note on Nirbhaya Fund (100 words)
- Started in Budget 2013
- Provides funding for women safety projects by ministries, department, private sector and NGOs.
- Example projects: CCTV @Public places, GPS and emergency buttons in public transport; helplines, Toll free numbers; self-defense lessons for women
- Interim Budget made Nirbhaya fund “non-lapsable” (meaning, even if money is unspent, it’ll not go back in the consolidated fund of India.)
- Total 2000 crore rupees in this fund.
- Jaitley budget 2014: we’ll setup Rape “Crisis Management Centers” In Delhi- in all public and private hospitals, using money from Nirbhaya fund.
- After Badayun (UP) gangrape and public hanging of two girls.
- There will be one Rape Crisis Centre per district.
- They will provide medical, police and legal service to rape victims.
- They will be linked with a national helpline.
in Budget 2014. Details yet to be worked out. But CM Modi had started a scheme “Beti Bachao” in Gujarat. Let’s check its salient features
- Census 2001: Gujarat child sex ratio was 883/1000. Therefore in 2005, then CM Modi began “Beti Bachao” scheme to save the girl child.
- He setup State monitoring agency to enforce Pre Natal Diagnostic Technique Act, PNDT Act in a strict manner.
- Workshops NGO, spiritual leaders, Anganwadi workers.
- Even Gujarat HC ran its own legal awareness campaign.
- At Community gatherings and mass-marriage ceremonies, couples made to take vow of protecting the girl child.
- Success? Partial success-Yes, Gujarat’s child sex ratio improved from 883 to 890 in 2011.
Jaitley only gave list, no specific salient features given. Hence nothing much to write.
- Safety in public transport (50 cr)
- Safety in large cities- project under Ministry of Home Affairs, 150 cr.
- Rape crisis Management centers in Delhi hospitals, using Nirbhaya fund.
- Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao
- School Syllabus to include a new topic: Gender Mainstreaming
- National program on Malnutrition for children. Its strategy will be worked out in next 6 months.